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# Chapter 8 - IP Addressing

## 8.0.1 Introduction >8.0.1.1 Introduction

Upon completion of this chapter you will be able to:

• Describe the structure of the IPv4 address
• Describe the purpose of the subnet mask
• Compare the characteristics and uses of the unicast, broadcast, and multicast IPv4 addresses.
• Compare the use of public address space and private address space.
• Explain the need for IPv6 address.
• Describe the representation of an IPv6 address.
• Describe types of IPv6 network addresses.
• Describe the role of ICMP in an IP network. (include IPv4 and IPv6)
• Use ping and traceroute utilities to test network connectivity.

# 8.0.1 Introduction >8.0.1.2 Activity - The Internet of Everything (IoE)

The image on this page shows a skyscraper, a car, an electric meter, a bundle of network cables, and an overhead view of an interstate interchange. This represents the “Internet of Everything”.

The description for this image is, “Today, more than 99 percent of our world remains unconnected. Tomorrow, we connect everything.” How will the IoE use IP addressing services for network communication?

### Objectives

Explain how network devices use routing tables to direct packets to a destination network.

IPv6 is important to help manage the data traffic identification, which will be needed in the future. Many addresses will assist in this endeavor, and IPv6 helps to alleviate this need.

## 8.1.1 IPv4 Address Structure >8.1.1.1 Binary Notation

Figure 1 on this page is an interactive media element that allows the learner to enter any character and have it translated to the corresponding ASCII bit value. For example a capital letter A is converted to the following binary byte pattern, 01000001.

Figure 2 on this page shows how the decimal number one hundred ninety two is formed. It is the combination of one set of the hundreds position, nine sets of the tens position, and two ones from the ones position.

Positional Notation:
192

 Hundreds Tens Ones Radix 10 10 10 Exponent 2 1 0 positional Value 100 10 1 Numerical Identifier 1 9 2 Numerical Value 1*100=100 9*10=90 2*1=2

100 + 90 + 2

## 8.1.1 IPv4 Address Structure >8.1.1.2 Binary Number System

The first image highlights an IPv4 address as the dotted decimal value of 192.168.10.10.

The second image highlights the binary octets. Decimal 192 is equivalent to binary 11000000. Decimal 168 is equivalent to binary 10101000. Decimal 10 is equivalent to binary 00001010. The last octet is again 10 and is binary 00001010.

The third image shows the four binary octets combined to give the IP address in binary as a total of 32 bits, 1100000 10101000 00001010 00001010.

Figure 2 on this page shows the eight bits positions that form a byte and their equivalent decimal values. Each binary bit position represents two raised to a power, starting from two to the power of zero for the right-most bit and going through two raised to the power of 7 for the left-most bit in the eight bit byte. Each Binary Address position that has a 1 effectively turns on that position and a 0 turns it off. The resulting decimal number is the addition of all the on bits added together.

 Radix 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Exponent 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Octet Bit Values 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Binary Address 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Binary Bit values 128 64 0 0 0 0 0 0

Add the binary bit values: 128 + 64 = 192

## 8.1.1 IPv4 Address Structure >8.1.1.3 Converting a Binary Address to Decimal

The figure on this page is an animation that shows the conversion from a 32 bit IP Address to a Dotted Decimal Address.

 Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4 Octet Bit Values Binary Address Binary Bit Values 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 128 64 0 0 0 0 0 0 128 0 32 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 2 0
```                             128 + 64 = 192                 128 + 32 + 8 = 168                 8 + 2 = 10                     8 + 2 = 10
```

## 8.1.1 IPv4 Address Structure >8.1.1.4 Activity - Binary to Decimal Conversions

The figure on this page is an interactive media element that presents the learner with a byte of data and the learner has to calculate the decimal value. For example:

 Decimal value Radix 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Exponent 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Position 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Bit 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0

## 8.1.1 IPv4 Address Structure >8.1.1.5 Converting from Decimal to Binary

The 6 figures on this page show the steps involved in calculating a binary number when given a decimal number. The starting decimal number is 168.

In figure 1 the decimal number is compared to the left-most binary bit, which is 128 and the question of “do I need 128 to make 168?” is posed. The answer is yes so the 128 bit is turned on by placing a 1 in the bit position. The value of 128 is subtracted from 168 with the result of 40.

Figure 2 moves to the next bit and asks the question “do I need 64 to make 40?”. The answer is no, so this bit is turned off with a zeroby placing a 0 in the bit position.

Figure 3 moves to the next bit and asks the question “do I need 32 to make 40?”. The answer is yes so the bit is turned on and 32 is subtracted from 40 for a result of 8.

Figure 4 moves to the next bit and asks the question “do I need 16 to make 8?”. The answer is no, so this bit is turned off with a zero.

Figure 5 moves to the next bit and asks the question “do I need 8 to make 8?”. The answer is yes so the bit is turned on and 8 is subtracted from 8 for a result of 0.

Figure 6 shows the last two bits are set to zero since there is no remainder to calculate bits. The final binary equivalent of 168 is 10101000.

 Octet BitValues Exponent 2^7 2^6 2^5 2^4 2^3 2^2 2^1 2^0 128 64 32 16 8 4 32 1 BinaryAddress 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0

## 8.1.1 IPv4 Address Structure >8.1.1.6 Converting from Decimal to Binary (Cont.)

The 5 figures ion this page show the conversions steps from the decimal number 192.168.10.10 to its binary equivalent

In figure 1 the decimal number is compared to the left-most binary bit, which is 128 and the question of “do I need 128 to make 192?” is posed. The answer is yes so the 128 bit is turned on and the value of 128 is subtracted from 192. The result is 64. The process continues to the next octet and asks the question “do I need 64 to make 64?”. The answer is yes, so this bit is turned on and 64 is then subtracted from 64 for a result of zero. Since we don’t need any more bits turned on, the remaining six bits in this octet are turned off. The byte is 11000000.

 128 64 32 16 8 4 32 1 192 > 128, place 1 in the 128 position192 - 128 = 64 1 64 = 64, place 1 in the 64 position64 - 64 = 0 0 1 1 0, place a 0 in all remaining positionsAll done. Result 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0

Figure 2 begins with the decimal number of 168. In step one the decimal number is compared to the left-most binary bit, which is 128 and the question of “do I need 128 to make 168?” is posed. The answer is yes so the 128 bit is turned on and the value of 128 is subtracted from 168. The result is 40. The next step is to move to the next bit and ask the question “do I need 64 to make 40?”. The answer is no, so this bit is turned off with a zero. The process moves to the next bit and asks the question “do I need 32 to make 40?”. The answer is yes so the bit is turned on and 32 is subtracted from 40 for a result of 8. The process moves to the next bit and asks the question “do I need 16 to make 8?”. The answer is no, so this bit is turned off with a zero. The process moves to the next bit and asks the question “do I need 8 to make 8?”. The answer is yes so the bit is turned on and 8 is subtracted from 8 for a result of 0. The last two bits are set to zero since there is no remainder to calculate bits. The final binary equivalent of 168 is 10101000.

 128 64 32 16 8 4 32 1 168 > 128, place 1 in the 128 position168 - 128 = 40 1 40 < 64, place 0 in the 64 positionDo not subtract 1 0 40 > 32, place 1 in the 32 position40 - 32 = 8 1 0 1 8 < 16, place 0 in the 16 positionDo not subtract 1 0 1 0 8 = 8, place 1 in the 8 position8 - 8 = 0 1 0 1 0 1 0, place a 0 in all remaining positionsAll done. Result 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0

 128 64 32 16 8 4 32 1 10 < 128, place 0 in the 128 positionDo not subtract 0 10 < 64, place 0 in the 64 positionDo not subtract 0 0 10 < 32, place 0 in the 32 positionDo not subtract 0 0 0 10 < 16, place 0 in the 16 positionDo not subtract 0 0 0 0 10 > 8, place 1 in the 8 position10 - 8 = 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 < 4, place 0 in the 4 positionDo not subtract 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 = 2, place 1 in the 2 position2 - 2 = 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0, place a 0 in all remaining positionsAll done. Result 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0

 128 64 32 16 8 4 32 1 10 < 128, place 0 in the 128 positionDo not subtract 0 10 < 64, place 0 in the 64 positionDo not subtract 0 0 10 < 32, place 0 in the 32 positionDo not subtract 0 0 0 10 < 16, place 0 in the 16 positionDo not subtract 0 0 0 0 10 > 8, place 1 in the 8 position10 - 8 = 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 < 4, place 0 in the 4 positionDo not subtract 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 = 2, place 1 in the 2 position2 - 2 = 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0, place a 0 in all remaining positionsAll done. Result 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0

Figure 5 shows the IP address of 192.168.10.10 converts to the Binary IPv4 Address 11000000101010000000101000001010.

192.168.10.10

 192 168 10 10 11000000 10101000 00001010 00001010

11000000 10101000 00001010 00001010

## 8.1.1 IPv4 Address Structure >8.1.1.7: Activity - Decimal to Binary Conversion Activity

The figure on this page is an interactive media element that presents the learner with a decimal number that needs to be converted into binary. The learner will enter either a one or a zero for each bit. For example:

 143 Decimal Value Radix 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Exponent 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Position 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Bit

## 8.1.1 IPv4 Address Structure >8.1.1.8 Activity - Binary Game

The figure on this page is a web link to the Cisco Binary game. There is also a link to download a mobile version. in the game the learner is asked to either convert binary to decimal or decimal to binary. This game is not accessible.

## 8.1.2 IPv4 Subnet Mask >8.1.2.1 Network Portion and Host Portion of an IPv4 Address

Figure 1 on this page shows the breakdown of an IPv4 address. The address is listed in both decimal and binary. The decimal value is 192.168.10.10. The binary equivalent of 192 is 11000000. Decimal 168 is equivalent to binary 10101000. Decimal 10 is equivalent to binary 00001010. The last octet is again 10 and is binary 00001010. The subnet mask is listed in decimal as 255.255.255.0. The binary equivalent is 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000. This is a class C IPv-4 network so the first three octets represent the network portion and the last host represents the host portion.

 Network Portion HostPortion IPv4 Address Decimal 192.168.10 10 IPv4 Address Binary 11000000 10101000 00001010 00001010 Subnet Mask Decimal 255.255.255 0 Subnet Mask Binary 11111111.11111111.11111111 00000000

Figure 2 on this page lists the valid subnet mask values. The bits that are set to 1 in a subnet mask must be consecutive from left to right so there are only certain values that can be used in subnet masks. When all eight bits are set to 1 it equals 255. The first seven bits working left to right set to 1 equals 254. The first six bits working left to right set to 1 equals 252. The first five bits working left to right set to 1 equals 248. The first four bits working left to right set to 1 equals 240. The first three bits working left to right set to 1 equals 224. The first two bits working left to right set to 1 equals 192. The first bit working left to right set to 1 equals 128. The last combination is when all eight bits are set to 0 it equals 0.

Bit Value
1286432168421
11111111
11111110
11111100
11111000
11110000
11100000
11000000
10000000
00000000

## 8.1.2 IPv4 Subnet Mask >8.1.2.2 Examining the Prefix Length

The first table has a network address of 10.1.1.0/24. The last eight bits in the address are the host bit positions. The first host address is 10.1.1.1, the last host address is 10.1.1.254 and the broadcast address is 10.1.1.255. The number of hosts on this network is 2 raised to the power of 8, then subtract 2 for a total of 254 hosts.

 Dotted Decimal Significant bits shownin binary Network Address 10.1.1.0/24 10.1.1.00000000 First Host Address 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.00000001 Last Host Address 10.1.1.254 10.1.1.11111110 Broadcast Address 10.1.1.255 10.1.1.11111111 Number of hosts: 2^8 - 2 = 254 hosts

The second table has a network address of 10.1.1.0/25. The last seven bits in the address are the host bit positions. The first host address is 10.1.1.1, the last host address is 10.1.1.126 and the broadcast address is 10.1.1.127. The number of hosts on this network is 2 raised to the power of 7, then subtract 2 for a total of 126 hosts.

 Dotted Decimal Significant bits shownin binary Network Address 10.1.1.0/25 10.1.1.00000000 First Host Address 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.00000001 Last Host Address 10.1.1.126 10.1.1.01111110 Broadcast Address 10.1.1.127 10.1.1.01111111 Number of hosts: 2^7 - 2 = 126 hosts

The third table has a network address of 10.1.1.0/26. The last six bits in the address are the host bit positions. The first host address is 10.1.1.1, the last host address is 10.1.1.62 and the broadcast address is 10.1.1.63. The number of hosts on this network is 2 raised to the power of 6, then subtract 2 for a total of 62 hosts.

 Dotted Decimal Significant bits shownin binary Network Address 10.1.1.0/26 10.1.1.00000000 First Host Address 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.00000001 Last Host Address 10.1.1.62 10.1.1.00111110 Broadcast Address 10.1.1.63 10.1.1.00111111 Number of hosts: 2^6 - 2 = 62 hosts

The first table has a network address of 10.1.1.0/27. The last five bits in the address are the host bit positions. The first host address is 10.1.1.1, the last host address is 10.1.1.32 and the broadcast address is 10.1.1.31. The number of hosts on this network is 2 raised to the power of 5, then subtract 2 for a total of 30 hosts.

 Dotted Decimal Significant bits shownin binary Network Address 10.1.1.0/27 10.1.1.00000000 First Host Address 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.00000001 Last Host Address 10.1.1.30 10.1.1.00011110 Broadcast Address 10.1.1.31 10.1.1.00011111 Number of hosts: 2^5 - 2 = 30 hosts

The second table has a network address of 10.1.1.0/28. The last four bits in the address are the host bit positions. The first host address is 10.1.1.1, the last host address is 10.1.1.14 and the broadcast address is 10.1.1.15. The number of hosts on this network is 2 raised to the power of 4, then subtract 2 for a total of 14 hosts.

 Dotted Decimal Significant bits shownin binary Network Address 10.1.1.0/28 10.1.1.00000000 First Host Address 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.00000001 Last Host Address 10.1.1.14 10.1.1.00001110 Broadcast Address 10.1.1.15 10.1.1.00001111 Number of hosts: 2^4 - 2 = 14 hosts

Figure 1 shows one router connected to a switch, and there are four computers connected to the switch:

 Network Address 10.1.1.0/24 Router 10.1.1.1 PC1 10.1.1.10 PC2 10.1.1.11

PC3||10.1.1.12|| PC4||10.1.1.254||

Figure 2 shows the Network Address and expands it into binary. The last eight bits is the host portion. The rule for a network address is all 0 bits in the host portion. This is true for each of the four computers:

Network Portion Host Portion 10               1               1 0 00001010         00000001         00000001 00000000

Figure 3 shows the Host Address of the computer with the IP address of 10.1.1.10. TThe rule for a Host Address is any combination of 0 and 1 bits in the host portion of the address but cannot contain all o bits or all 1 bits:

Network Portion Host Portion 10               1               1 10 00001010         00000001         00000001 00001010

Figure 4 shows the the Broadcast Address. The rule for this address is all 1 bits in the host portion:

Network Portion Host Portion 10               1               1 255 00001010         00000001         00000001 11111111

## 8.1.2 IPv4 Subnet Mask >8.1.2.4 First Host and Last Host Addresses

The 2 figures on this page show the same network as on the previous page.

Figure 1 shows the first available IP address on the network. The rule is all 0 bits in the host portion except for the right-most bit, which will be set to 1:

Network Portion Host Portion 10               1               1 255 00001010         00000001         00000001 00000001

Figure 2 shows the last available IP address on the network. The rule is all 1 bits in the host portion except for the right-most bit, which will be set to 0:

Network Portion Host Portion 10               1               1 255 00001010         00000001         00000001 11111110

## 8.1.2 IPv4 Subnet Mask >8.1.2.5 Bitwise AND Operation

The 4 figures on this page shows the process of ANDing a 1 bit with a 1 bit using the 192.168.10.10/24 address. The IP address and the subnet mask are both listed in binary with the IP address above the subnet mask:

11000000     10101000     0000101000001010
11111111       11111111       1111111100000000

In figure 1 the first two bits in the first octet for the IP address and the subnet mask are both 1 bits so the network address will start with the left most two bits set to 1. The next octet has the first, third and fifth bits from left to right set to 1 in the IP address, so these bits become set to 1 in the network address. The third octet also has the first, third and fifth bits from left to right set to 1 in the IP address, so these bits become set to 1 in the network address.

11000000     10101000     0000101000001010
11111111     11111111       1111111100000000
11______     1_1_1___       ___1_1_________

Figure 2 fills in the blanks in the network address with 0 bits since ANDing a 0 and a 1 will result in 0:

11000000     10101000     0000101000001010
11111111       11111111       1111111100000000
11000000     101010000     00001010________

Figure 3 is ANDing a 0 and a 0, which is 0. The subnet mask is all 0 bits in the host portion, so the host octet is all 0 bits:

11000000     10101000     0000101000001010
11111111       11111111       1111111100000000
11000000     101010000     000010100000_0_0

Figure 4 is ANDing a 1 and a 0, which will equal 0. This causes all the host bits to be 0 bits and results in the network identification address of 192.168.10.10/24:

11000000     10101000     0000101000001010
11111111       11111111       1111111100000000
11000000     101010000     0000101000000000

## 8.1.2 IPv4 Subnet Mask >8.1.2.6 Importance of ANDing

The figure on this page illustrates the importance of ANDing a 1 bit with a 1 bit using the 192.168.10.10/24 address. The IP address and the subnet mask are both listed in binary with the IP address above the subnet mask:

IPv4 Address Subnet Mask Network Address 192     .     168     .       10     .     10 Binary 11000000     10101000     00001010 00001010 255     .     255     .       255     .     0 Binary 11111111       11111111       11111111 00000000 192     .     168     .       10     .       0 Binary 11000000     101010000     00001010 00000000

## 8.1.2 IPv4 Subnet Mask >8.1.2.7: Lab - Using the Windows Calculator with Network Addresses

See Lab Descriptions.

## 8.1.2 IPv4 Subnet Mask >8.1.2.8: Lab - Converting IPv4 Addresses to Binary

See Lab Descriptions.

## 8.1.2 IPv4 Subnet Mask >8.1.2.9 Activity - ANDing to Determine the Network Address

The figure on this page is an interactive media element that presents the learner with a host address and a subnet mask in both decimal and binary. The learner is asked to perform the ANDing and provide the network address in both binary and decimal. For example:

 Host Address 10 177 153 1123 Subnet Mask 255 255 255 248 Host Address in Binary 00001010 10110001 10011001 01111011 Subnet Mask in Binary 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111000 Network Address in Binary Network Address in Decimal

## 8.1.3 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast >8.1.3.1 Assigning a Static IPv4 Address to a Host

Figure 1 on this page shows the graphical user interface for the network adapter properties for a Windows computer and it is highlighting the IPv4 setting option.

Figure 2 on this page shows the IPv-4 properties window and the option for static addressing is selected. In the figure the IP address, subnet mask and a default gateway are being configured.

## 8.1.3 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast >8.1.3.2 Assigning a Dynamic IPv4 Address to a Host

Figure 1 on this page shows the IP4 properties window and in the window the setting for the adapter to automatically obtain an IP address is selected.

Figure 2 on this page is a command prompt window showing the output of the IP config command, which is displaying the IP address, subnet mask, default gateways, and DNS server address

## 8.1.3 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast >8.1.3.3 Unicast Transmission

The figure on this page is an animation showing a unicast transmission. A computer with the IP address of 172.16.4.1 needs to send a packet to a network printer with the IP address of 172.16.4.253. The packet is sent to a switch and then the packet is forwarded to the printer.

## 8.1.3 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast >8.1.3.5 Multicast Transmission

The figure on this page is an animation of a multicast transmission. A computer with the IP address of 172.16.4.1 is sending a multicast message to the multicast address of 224.10.10.5. Two devices on the switch are members of this multicast group and they each receive a copy of the frame.

## 8.1.3 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast >8.1.3.6 Activity - Unicast, Broadcast, or Multicast

The figure on this page is an interactive media element that presents the learner with a network and a destination IP address from the source host. The network consists of a switch connected to a source host and five other computers. The learner is asked to identify which devices on the network will receive the transmission. For example:

Source Host192.168.100.255
PC1192.168.100.1255.5.77.126
PC2192.168.100.2237.192.126.17
PC3192.168.100.3
PC4192.168.100.4237.192.126.17
PC5192.168.100.5255.5.77.126

## 8.1.3 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast >8.1.3.7

(image1): Shows an interactive activity where you have to enter the Network address, Broadcast address, First usable Host address and Last Usable Host address in binary and decimal given to you in a random generated network address and prefix.

## 8.1.3 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast >8.1.3.8:

Packet tracer activity.

8.1.4.1 (image1): Shows a picture of 3 separate individual networks which are not connected to the ISP or the internet. 8.1.4.2 (image1): Is an interactive activity where you have to choose two buttons to pass or black the random generated IP address.

``` 8.1.4.3 (image1): Shows a picture of 2 separate networks that are connected to one router and the router is connected to the internet.
```

8.1.4.5 (image1): The image is clearly explained in the written information. 8.1.4.6 (image1): Shows a picture of an image in an hierarch diagram. Tier1 (sprint, Savvis) is connected to two separate tier2 which are one is Tier2 (nLayer) and Tier2 (France Tecom) Tier2 (nlayer) is connected to two separate Tier 3 which one is Tier 3 (Fortess ITX) and Tier 3 (Beachcomputers)

8.1.4.7: Shows a picture of two columns, one called public and one called private with 8 different IP addresses where the individual has to choose which column the IP addresses go in to.

Public

Private

IP addresses. 172.16.35.2 192.168.3.5 192.0.2.15 64.104.0.22 209.165.201.30 192.168.11.5 172.16.30.30 10.55.3.168

8.1.4.8: Computer Lab 8.2.1.1 (image1): Shows a picture of an info graphic with the title The internet of things. 8.2.1.2 (image1): Shows a picture of 3 individual computers connected to one router which is running Dual stack IPv4 and IPv6. 8.2.1.2 (image2): Shows a picture of 2 separate IPv6 networks with each network connected to a single dual stack IPv6 and IPv4 routers and the routers are connected to a IPv4 only network tunnel. 8.2.1.2 (image3): Shows a picture of one IPv6 network connected to a NAT64 router and the router connected to a IPv4 network.

8.2.1.3: Shows an interactive activity where the individual has to select one of the options to the corresponding descriptions. Choose options: Dual Stack IPv4 Tunnelling IPv6 Translation

Options Descriptions

```	128 bit address/340 undercillion addresses.
Transports an IPv6 packet over IPv4 networks.
Allows NAT to be used in both IPv6 and IPv4 networks.
Allows IPv4 and IPv6 to coexist on the same network.
```

8.2.2.2.1 (image1): Shows a picture of a table representing hexadecimal values. Hexadecimal Decimal Binary 0 0 0000 1 1 0001 2 2 0010 3 3 0011 4 4 0100 5 5 0101 6 6 0110 7 7 0111 8 8 1000 9 9 1001 A 10 1010 B 11 1011 C 12 1100 D 13 1101 E 14 1110 F 15 1111

8.2.2.2.1 (image2): Shows a picture of a table representing hexadecimal values.

Hexadecimal Decimal Binary 00 0 0000 0000 01 1 0000 0001 02 2 0000 0010 03 3 0000 0011 04 4 0000 0100 05 5 0000 0101 06 6 0000 0110 07 7 0000 0111 08 8 0000 1000 0A 10 0000 1010 0F 15 0000 1111 10 16 0001 0000 20 32 0010 0000 40 64 0100 0000 80 128 1000 0000 C0 192 1100 0000 CA 202 1100 1010 F0 240 1111 0000 FF 255 1111 1111

8.2.2.2 (image1): Shows a picture of a table of Hextexts. X: X: X: X: X: X: X:: X 0000 to FFFF: 0000 to FFFF: 0000 to FFFF: 0000 to FFFF: 0000 to FFFF: 0000 to FFFF: 0000 to FFFF: 0000 to FFFF

8.2.2.2 (image2): Shows a picture of a table of the preferred format for Hextexts. 2001: ODB8: 0000: 1111: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0200 2001: ODB8: 0000: 00A3: ABCD: 0000: 0000: 1234: 2001: ODB8: 000A: 0001: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0100: 2001: ODB8: AAAA: 0001: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0200: FE80: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0123: 4567: 89AB: CDEF: FE80: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0001: FF02: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0001: FF02: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0001: FF00: 0200: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0001: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0000:

8.2.2.3 (image1): Shows a picture of a table of omitting leading 0s Preferred 2001:0DB8:0000:1111:0000:0000:0000:0200 No leading 0s 2001:_DB8:___0:1111:___0:____0:____0:_200

8.2.2.3 (image2): Shows a picture of a table of omitting leading 0s Preferred 2001:0DB8:0000:A300:ABCD:0000:0000:1234 No leading 0s 2001:_DB8:___0:A300:ABCD:____0:____0:1234

8.2.2.3 (image3): Shows a picture of a table of omitting leading 0s Preferred 2001:0DB8:000A:1000:0000:0000:0000:0100 No leading 0s 2001:_DB8:___A:1000:____0:____0:____0:__100

8.2.2.4 (image1): Shows a picture of a table for using double colons Preferred 2001:0DB8:0000:1111:0000: 0000: 0000:0200 No leading 0s 2001:__DB8:___0:1111:____0: ____0: ____0:0200 Compressed 2001:DB8:0:1111::200

8.2.2.4 (image2): Shows a picture of a table for using double colons Preferred 2001:0DB8:0000:0000:ABCD: 0000: 0000:0100 No leading 0s 2001:__DB8:___0:___0:ABCD: ____0: ____0:_100 Compressed 2001:DB8:0:0:100 OR Compressed 2001:DB8:0:0:ABCD::100

8.2.2.4 (image3): Shows a picture of a table for using double colons Preferred FE80:0000:0000:0000:0123: 4567: 89AB:CDEF No leading 0s FE80:___0:___0:___0:_123: 4567: 89AB:CDEF Compressed FE80::123:4567:89AB:CDEF

8.2.2.5: Shows an interactive activity where you have to enter the compressed and the leading 0s in the columns to the matching IPv6 address.

8.2.3.1 (image1): Shows a picture of a the IPv6 unicast communication of 2 individual computers, one server, one printer, one router and one switch which are all connected to the same switch.

8.2.3.2(image1): shows a picture of a table of IPv6 address prefix IP address 2001:0DB8:000A::/64 Prefix Interface ID 2001:0DB8:000A:0000 0000: 0000: 0000: 0000

8.2.3.3 (image1): The image is clearly explained in the written information.

8.2.3.4 (image1): Shows a picture of a the IPv6 link local communications of 2 individual computers, one server, one printer, one router and one switch which are all connected to the same switch.

Computer 1: FE80::AAAA /64 Computer 2: FE80::BBBB /64 Server: FE80::CCCC /64 Printer: FE80::DDDD /64 Router: FE80::1/64

8.2.3.4(image2): shows a picture of the Ipv6 link local address. 1111 1110 10 Remaining 54 bits Interface ID

8.2.3.5: Shows an interactive activity where the individual has to select one of the options to the corresponding descriptions. options: /64 Link-local Global unicast Unspecified Loopback Options Descriptions

```	Unique, Internet routable IPv6 address (dynamic or static)
IPv6 address represented as ::1 (compressed format)
IPv6 address represented as :: (compressed format) cannot be assigned to a interface
Typical IPv6 prefix used to indicate the network portion of the address
Used to communicate with other devices on the same IPv6 subnet
```

8.2.4.1 (image1): The image is clearly explained in the written information. 8.2.4.1 (image2): The image is clearly explained in the written information. 8.2.4.1 (image3): Shows a list of the different ways to read IPv6 global unicast address. Compressed: 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10 preferred: 2001:0DB8:ACAD::0001:0000: 0000: 0000: 0010 Global routing prefix: 2001:0DB8:ACAD Subnet ID: 0001 interface ID: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0200

8.2.4.2 (image1): Shows a picture of a small network of 2 single computers. Each computer is called PC1 and PC2. Each computer is connected to their own individual switches which are then connected to a single router and the router is hooked up to the web. 8.2.4.2 (image2): Shows a picture of the Cisco commands of the small network in the image above. R1 (config) #interface gigabitethernet 0/0

``` R1 (config-if) #ipv6 address : 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1/64
```

R1 (config-if) #no shutdown R1 (config-if) #exit R1 (config) #interface gigabitethernet 0/1 R1 (config-if) #ipv6 address : 2001:DB8:ACAD:2::1/64 R1 (config-if) #no shutdown R1 (config-if) #exit R1 (config) #interface serial 0/0/0 R1 (config-if) #ipv6 address : 2001:DB8:ACAD:3::1/64 R1 (config-if) #clock rate 56000 R1 (config-if) #no shutdown

8.2.4.2 (image3): Shows a picture of the internet protocol version 6 properties with two buttons. One is to obtain an IP address automatically and the other button is manually typing in the IP address and information such as: IPv6 address, subnet prefix length and default gateway. 8.2.4.2 (image4): Shows an activity where you have to write in the Cisco commands for the network in image 1.

8.2.4.3 (image1): The image is text boxes of different sizes of the same written information.

8.2.4.4 (image1): Shows a picture of a small network of one router connected to one single computer and one DHCPv6 Server and shows the actions that can occur on an IPv6 network through router solicitation and router advertisement. step1 (Router solicitation: -To all IPv6 address): “I need addressing information from the router”. step2 (Router Advertisement: - To all IPv6 nodes): (SLAAC and DHCPv6) – “Here is your prefix, prefix length, default gateway information, but you will need to get DNS information from a DHCPv6 server”. Step3(DHCPv6 Solicit: - To all DHCPv6 servers) : (SLAAC and DHCPv6) – “I need addressing information from a DHCPv6 server.”

8.2.4.5 (image1): Shows a picture of a table of the EUI 64 process. EUI-64 process FC 99 47 75 CE E0

Step1: Mac Address Binary 1111 1100 1001 1001 0100 0111 0111 0101 1100 1110 1110 0000

Step2: Insert FFFE Binary 1111 1100 1001 1001 0100 0111 1111 1111 1111 1110 0111 0101 1100 1110 1110 0000

Srep3: Flip the U/L bit Binary 1111 1110 1001 1001 0100 0111 1111 1111 1111 1110 0111 0101 1100 1110 1110 0000

Modified EUI-64 interface ID in hexadecimal Notation Binary FE 99 47 FF FE 75 CE E0

8.2.4.5 (image2): Shows a picture of the Cisco configuration code. R1#show interface gigabitethernet 0/0 Gigabitethernet 0/0 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is CN Gigabyte Ethernet, address is fc99.4775.c3e0 (bia fc99.4775.c3e0) <output omitted> R1#show ipv6 interface brief GigabitEthernet 0/0 [up/up] FE80::FE99:47EF:FE75:C3E0 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1 GigabitEthernet 0/1 [up/up] FE80::FE99:47EF:FE75:C3E1 2001:DB8:ACAD:2::1 Serial 0/0/0 [up/up] FE80::FE99:47EF:FE75:C3E0 2001:DB8:ACAD:3::1 Serial 0/0/1 [administratively down/down] Unassigned R1#

1111 1110 10 Interface ID

8.2.4.7 (image1): Shows a picture of the Cisco configuration code for link local address. R1(config) #interface gigabitethernet 0/0 R1(config-if) #ipv6 address fe80::1 ?

```  Link-local  Use link local address
```

8.2.4.7(image2): shows a picture of the cisco configuration code for link local address. R1#show ipv6 interface brief GigabitEthernet 0/0 [up/up] FE80::1 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1 GigabitEthernet 0/1 [up/up] FE80::1 2001:DB8:ACAD:2::1 Serial 0/0/0 [up/up] FE80::1 2001:DB8:ACAD:3::1 Serial 0/0/1 [administratively down/down] Unassigned R1#

8.2.4.8 (image1): Shows a picture of a small network of 2 single computers. The computers are called PC1 and PC2. Each computer is connected to their own individual switches which are then connected to a single router and the router is hooked up to the web as well as showing the Cisco configuration code for the small network. R1#show ipv6 interface Gigabitethernet 0/0 [up/up] FE80::FE99:47EF:FE75:C3E0 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1 Gigabitethernet 0/1 [up/up] FE80::FE99:47EF:FE75:C3E1 2001:DB8:ACAD:2::1 Serial 0/0/0 [up/up] FE80::FE99:47EF:FE75:C3E0 2001:DB8:ACAD:3::1 Serial 0/0/1 [administratively down/down] Unassigned R1#

8.2.4.8 (image2): Shows a picture of the Cisco configuration code for: show ipv6 route. R1# show ipv6 route IPv6 Routing table – default – 7 entries Code: c – connected, L – local, s - static, u – per-user static <output omitted> C 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::/64 [0/0] Via gigabitEthernet 0/0, directly connected L 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1/128 [0/0] Via gigabitEthernet 0/0, receive C 2001:DB8:ACAD:2::/64 [0/0] Via gigabitEthernet 0/1, directly connected L 2001:DB8:ACAD:2::1/128 [0/0] Via gigabitEthernet 0/1, receive C 2001:DB8:ACAD:3::/64 [0/0] Via serial 0/0/0, directly connected L 2001:DB8:ACAD:3::1/128 [0/0] Via serial 0/0/0, receive L FF00::/8 [0/0] Via Null0, receive R1#

8.2.4.8 (image3): Shows a picture of the Cisco configuration code for ping command. R1# ping 2001:db8:acad:1::10 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echoes to 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::10, timeout is 2 seconds:

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5) R1#

8.2.4.8 (image4): Shows an activity where you have to enter the code to display the brief summary and IPV6 interface status.

8.2.5.1 (image1): Shows a picture of a small network of 2 individual computers connected to one switch and the same switch connected to one server, one printer and one router. IPv6 All-nodes multicast communications Source IPv6 address Destination IPv6 address 2001:0DB8:ACAD:1::1 FF02::1

8.2.5.2 (image1): Shows a picture of two tables. One is global unicast address and the other is solicited node multicast address.

Solicited node multicast address FF02 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 FF 00:0010

8.2.5.3: Packet tracer activity 8.2.5.4: Computer Lab 8.2.5.5: Computer Lab 8.3.1.1 (image1): Shows a video demonstrating the ICMPv4 ping to a remote host which is also clearly explained in the written information.

``` 8.3.1.2 (image1): Shows a picture of a router connected to a single computer and is also connected to a single DHCPv6 server and the actions that will occur on the network through router solicitation and router advertisement messages.
```

Step1: (router solicitation) – “ I need addressing information from the router”. Step2(Router advertisement) - “I’m everything you need (prefix, prefix length, default gateway) Or “Here is my information but you need to get other information such as DNS addresses from a DHCPv6 server.” Or “I can’t help you. Ask a DHCPv6 server for all your information.”

8.3.2.1 (image1): The image is clearly explained in the written information.

8.3.2.2 (image1): Shows a picture of one single computer with the settings: IP address: 10.0.0.1 and subnet mask: 255.255.255.0 which is connected to a switch, the switch is connected to a router with the following settings: default gateway 10.0.0.254 and subnet mask: 255.255.255.0. The single computer has executed a ping command to 10.0.0.254

8.3.2.3 (image1): Shows a picture of 2 small networks called network 1 and network 2. Network 1 has sent a echo request to network 2, network 2 replies with a echo reply to network 1 confirming it received the echo request. 8.3.2.4 (image1): The image is clearly explained in the written information. 8.3.2.5: Packet tracer activity 8.3.2.6: Packet tracer activity

8.3.2.7: Computer Lab

8.3.2.7: Computer Lab

8.4.1.1: Class Activity

8.4.1.2: Packet tracer

8.4.1.3 (image1): Shows a picture of a diagram of the IPv4 address and subnet mask. IPv4 Address 192. 168. 10 10 11000000 10101000 00001010 00001010

Subnet Mask 255. 255. 255.0 0 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000