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# Chapter 8 - IP Addressing

### 8.0.1 Introduction >8.0.1.1 Introduction

Upon completion of this chapter you will be able to:

• Describe the structure of the IPv4 address
• Describe the purpose of the subnet mask
• Compare the characteristics and uses of the unicast, broadcast, and multicast IPv4 addresses.
• Compare the use of public address space and private address space.
• Explain the need for IPv6 address.
• Describe the representation of an IPv6 address.
• Describe types of IPv6 network addresses.
• Describe the role of ICMP in an IP network. (include IPv4 and IPv6)
• Use ping and traceroute utilities to test network connectivity.

### 8.0.1 Introduction >8.0.1.2 Activity - The Internet of Everything (IoE)

The image on this page shows a skyscraper, a car, an electric meter, a bundle of network cables, and an overhead view of an interstate interchange. This represents the “Internet of Everything”.

The description for this image is, “Today, more than 99 percent of our world remains unconnected. Tomorrow, we connect everything.” How will the IoE use IP addressing services for network communication?

#### Objectives

Explain how network devices use routing tables to direct packets to a destination network.

IPv6 is important to help manage the data traffic identification, which will be needed in the future. Many addresses will assist in this endeavor, and IPv6 helps to alleviate this need.

### 8.1.1 IPv4 Address Structure >8.1.1.1 Binary Notation

Figure 1 on this page is an interactive media element that allows the learner to enter any character and have it translated to the corresponding ASCII bit value. For example a capital letter A is converted to the following binary byte pattern, 01000001.

The figure also has the following 2 buttons:

• Translate
• Clear

Figure 2 on this page shows how the decimal number one hundred ninety two is formed. It is the combination of one set of the hundreds position, nine sets of the tens position, and two ones from the ones position.

Positional Notation:
192

 Hundreds Tens Ones Radix 10 10 10 Exponent 2 1 0 positional Value 100 10 1 Numerical Identifier 1 9 2 Numerical Value 1*100=100 9*10=90 2*1=2

100 + 90 + 2

## 8.1.1 IPv4 Address Structure >8.1.1.2 Binary Number System

The figure also has the following 3 buttons:

• Octets

Selecting Dotted Decimal Address highlights an IPv4 address as the dotted decimal value of 192.168.10.10.

Selecting Octets highlights the binary octets. Decimal 192 is equivalent to binary 11000000. Decimal 168 is equivalent to binary 10101000. Decimal 10 is equivalent to binary 00001010. The last octet is again 10 and is binary 00001010.

Selecting 32-Bit Address shows the four binary octets combined to give the IP address in binary as a total of 32 bits, 1100000 10101000 00001010 00001010.

Figure 2 on this page shows the eight bits positions that form a byte and their equivalent decimal values. Each binary bit position represents two raised to a power, starting from two to the power of zero for the right-most bit and going through two raised to the power of 7 for the left-most bit in the eight bit byte. Each Binary Address position that has a 1 effectively turns on that position and a 0 turns it off. The resulting decimal number is the addition of all the on bits added together.

 Radix 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Exponent 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Octet Bit Values 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Binary Address 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Binary Bit values 128 64 0 0 0 0 0 0

Add the binary bit values: 128 + 64 = 192

### 8.1.1 IPv4 Address Structure >8.1.1.3 Converting a Binary Address to Decimal

The figure on this page is an animation that shows the conversion from a 32 bit IP Address to a Dotted Decimal Address.

Octet 1 Octet 2 Octet 3 Octet 4
Octet Bit Values 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
Binary Address 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0
Binary Bit Values 128 64 0 0 0 0 0 0 128 0 32 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 2 0
Add Bit Values 128 + 64 = 192 128 + 32 + 8 = 168 8 + 2 = 10 8 + 2 = 10

### 8.1.1 IPv4 Address Structure >8.1.1.4 Activity - Binary to Decimal Conversions

The figure on this page is an interactive media element that presents the learner with a byte of data and the learner has to calculate the decimal value. For example:

 Decimal value Radix 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Exponent 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Position 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Bit 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0

The figure also has the following 3 buttons:

• Check
• Reset
• New Number

### 8.1.1 IPv4 Address Structure >8.1.1.5 Converting from Decimal to Binary

The 6 figures on this page show the steps involved in calculating a binary number when given a decimal number. The starting decimal number is 168.

In figure 1 the decimal number is compared to the left-most binary bit, which is 128 and the question of “do I need 128 to make 168?” is posed. The answer is yes so the 128 bit is turned on by placing a 1 in the bit position. The value of 128 is subtracted from 168 with the result of 40.

Figure 2 moves to the next bit and asks the question “do I need 64 to make 40?”. The answer is no, so this bit is turned off with a zeroby placing a 0 in the bit position.

Figure 3 moves to the next bit and asks the question “do I need 32 to make 40?”. The answer is yes so the bit is turned on and 32 is subtracted from 40 for a result of 8.

Figure 4 moves to the next bit and asks the question “do I need 16 to make 8?”. The answer is no, so this bit is turned off with a zero.

Figure 5 moves to the next bit and asks the question “do I need 8 to make 8?”. The answer is yes so the bit is turned on and 8 is subtracted from 8 for a result of 0.

Figure 6 shows the last two bits are set to zero since there is no remainder to calculate bits. The final binary equivalent of 168 is 10101000.

 Octet BitValues Exponent 2^7 2^6 2^5 2^4 2^3 2^2 2^1 2^0 128 64 32 16 8 4 32 1 BinaryAddress 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0

### 8.1.1 IPv4 Address Structure >8.1.1.6 Converting from Decimal to Binary (Cont.)

The 5 figures ion this page show the conversions steps from the decimal number 192.168.10.10 to its binary equivalent

In figure 1 the decimal number is compared to the left-most binary bit, which is 128 and the question of “do I need 128 to make 192?” is posed. The answer is yes so the 128 bit is turned on and the value of 128 is subtracted from 192. The result is 64. The process continues to the next octet and asks the question “do I need 64 to make 64?”. The answer is yes, so this bit is turned on and 64 is then subtracted from 64 for a result of zero. Since we don’t need any more bits turned on, the remaining six bits in this octet are turned off. The byte is 11000000.

 128 64 32 16 8 4 32 1 192 > 128, place 1 in the 128 position192 - 128 = 64 1 64 = 64, place 1 in the 64 position64 - 64 = 0 0 1 1 0, place a 0 in all remaining positionsAll done. Result 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0

Figure 2 begins with the decimal number of 168. In step one the decimal number is compared to the left-most binary bit, which is 128 and the question of “do I need 128 to make 168?” is posed. The answer is yes so the 128 bit is turned on and the value of 128 is subtracted from 168. The result is 40. The next step is to move to the next bit and ask the question “do I need 64 to make 40?”. The answer is no, so this bit is turned off with a zero. The process moves to the next bit and asks the question “do I need 32 to make 40?”. The answer is yes so the bit is turned on and 32 is subtracted from 40 for a result of 8. The process moves to the next bit and asks the question “do I need 16 to make 8?”. The answer is no, so this bit is turned off with a zero. The process moves to the next bit and asks the question “do I need 8 to make 8?”. The answer is yes so the bit is turned on and 8 is subtracted from 8 for a result of 0. The last two bits are set to zero since there is no remainder to calculate bits. The final binary equivalent of 168 is 10101000.

 128 64 32 16 8 4 32 1 168 > 128, place 1 in the 128 position168 - 128 = 40 1 40 < 64, place 0 in the 64 positionDo not subtract 1 0 40 > 32, place 1 in the 32 position40 - 32 = 8 1 0 1 8 < 16, place 0 in the 16 positionDo not subtract 1 0 1 0 8 = 8, place 1 in the 8 position8 - 8 = 0 1 0 1 0 1 0, place a 0 in all remaining positionsAll done. Result 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0

 128 64 32 16 8 4 32 1 10 < 128, place 0 in the 128 positionDo not subtract 0 10 < 64, place 0 in the 64 positionDo not subtract 0 0 10 < 32, place 0 in the 32 positionDo not subtract 0 0 0 10 < 16, place 0 in the 16 positionDo not subtract 0 0 0 0 10 > 8, place 1 in the 8 position10 - 8 = 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 < 4, place 0 in the 4 positionDo not subtract 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 = 2, place 1 in the 2 position2 - 2 = 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0, place a 0 in all remaining positionsAll done. Result 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0

 128 64 32 16 8 4 32 1 10 < 128, place 0 in the 128 positionDo not subtract 0 10 < 64, place 0 in the 64 positionDo not subtract 0 0 10 < 32, place 0 in the 32 positionDo not subtract 0 0 0 10 < 16, place 0 in the 16 positionDo not subtract 0 0 0 0 10 > 8, place 1 in the 8 position10 - 8 = 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 < 4, place 0 in the 4 positionDo not subtract 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 = 2, place 1 in the 2 position2 - 2 = 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0, place a 0 in all remaining positionsAll done. Result 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0

Figure 5 shows the IP address of 192.168.10.10 converts to the Binary IPv4 Address 11000000101010000000101000001010.

192.168.10.10

 192 168 10 10 11000000 10101000 00001010 00001010

11000000 10101000 00001010 00001010

### 8.1.1 IPv4 Address Structure >8.1.1.7: Activity - Decimal to Binary Conversion Activity

The figure on this page is an interactive media element that presents the learner with a decimal number that needs to be converted into binary. The learner will enter either a one or a zero for each bit. For example:

 143 Decimal Value Radix 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Exponent 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Position 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Bit

The figure also has the following 3 buttons:

• Check
• Reset
• New Number

### 8.1.1 IPv4 Address Structure >8.1.1.8 Activity - Binary Game

The figure on this page is a web link to the Cisco Binary game. There is also a link to download a mobile version. in the game the learner is asked to either convert binary to decimal or decimal to binary. This game is not accessible.

### 8.1.2 IPv4 Subnet Mask >8.1.2.1 Network Portion and Host Portion of an IPv4 Address

Figure 1 on this page shows the breakdown of an IPv4 address. The address is listed in both decimal and binary. The decimal value is 192.168.10.10. The binary equivalent of 192 is 11000000. Decimal 168 is equivalent to binary 10101000. Decimal 10 is equivalent to binary 00001010. The last octet is again 10 and is binary 00001010. The subnet mask is listed in decimal as 255.255.255.0. The binary equivalent is 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000. This is a class C IPv-4 network so the first three octets represent the network portion and the last host represents the host portion.

 Network Portion HostPortion IPv4 Address Decimal 192.168.10 10 IPv4 Address Binary 11000000 10101000 00001010 00001010 Subnet Mask Decimal 255.255.255 0 Subnet Mask Binary 11111111.11111111.11111111 00000000

Figure 2 on this page lists the valid subnet mask values. The bits that are set to 1 in a subnet mask must be consecutive from left to right so there are only certain values that can be used in subnet masks. When all eight bits are set to 1 it equals 255. The first seven bits working left to right set to 1 equals 254. The first six bits working left to right set to 1 equals 252. The first five bits working left to right set to 1 equals 248. The first four bits working left to right set to 1 equals 240. The first three bits working left to right set to 1 equals 224. The first two bits working left to right set to 1 equals 192. The first bit working left to right set to 1 equals 128. The last combination is when all eight bits are set to 0 it equals 0.

Bit Value
1286432168421
11111111
11111110
11111100
11111000
11110000
11100000
11000000
10000000
00000000

### 8.1.2 IPv4 Subnet Mask >8.1.2.2 Examining the Prefix Length

The first table has a network address of 10.1.1.0/24. The last eight bits in the address are the host bit positions. The first host address is 10.1.1.1, the last host address is 10.1.1.254 and the broadcast address is 10.1.1.255. The number of hosts on this network is 2 raised to the power of 8, then subtract 2 for a total of 254 hosts.

 Dotted Decimal Significant bits shown in binary Network Address 10.1.1.0/24 10.1.1.00000000 First Host Address 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.00000001 Last Host Address 10.1.1.254 10.1.1.11111110 Broadcast Address 10.1.1.255 10.1.1.11111111 Number of hosts: 2^8 - 2 = 254 hosts

The second table has a network address of 10.1.1.0/25. The last seven bits in the address are the host bit positions. The first host address is 10.1.1.1, the last host address is 10.1.1.126 and the broadcast address is 10.1.1.127. The number of hosts on this network is 2 raised to the power of 7, then subtract 2 for a total of 126 hosts.

 Dotted Decimal Significant bits shown in binary Network Address 10.1.1.0/25 10.1.1.00000000 First Host Address 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.00000001 Last Host Address 10.1.1.126 10.1.1.01111110 Broadcast Address 10.1.1.127 10.1.1.01111111 Number of hosts: 2^7 - 2 = 126 hosts

The third table has a network address of 10.1.1.0/26. The last six bits in the address are the host bit positions. The first host address is 10.1.1.1, the last host address is 10.1.1.62 and the broadcast address is 10.1.1.63. The number of hosts on this network is 2 raised to the power of 6, then subtract 2 for a total of 62 hosts.

 Dotted Decimal Significant bits shown in binary Network Address 10.1.1.0/26 10.1.1.00000000 First Host Address 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.00000001 Last Host Address 10.1.1.62 10.1.1.00111110 Broadcast Address 10.1.1.63 10.1.1.00111111 Number of hosts: 2^6 - 2 = 62 hosts

The first table has a network address of 10.1.1.0/27. The last five bits in the address are the host bit positions. The first host address is 10.1.1.1, the last host address is 10.1.1.32 and the broadcast address is 10.1.1.31. The number of hosts on this network is 2 raised to the power of 5, then subtract 2 for a total of 30 hosts.

 Dotted Decimal Significant bits shown in binary Network Address 10.1.1.0/27 10.1.1.00000000 First Host Address 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.00000001 Last Host Address 10.1.1.30 10.1.1.00011110 Broadcast Address 10.1.1.31 10.1.1.00011111 Number of hosts: 2^5 - 2 = 30 hosts

The second table has a network address of 10.1.1.0/28. The last four bits in the address are the host bit positions. The first host address is 10.1.1.1, the last host address is 10.1.1.14 and the broadcast address is 10.1.1.15. The number of hosts on this network is 2 raised to the power of 4, then subtract 2 for a total of 14 hosts.

 Dotted Decimal Significant bits shown in binary Network Address 10.1.1.0/28 10.1.1.00000000 First Host Address 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.00000001 Last Host Address 10.1.1.14 10.1.1.00001110 Broadcast Address 10.1.1.15 10.1.1.00001111 Number of hosts: 2^4 - 2 = 14 hosts

Figure 1 shows one router connected to a switch, and there are four computers connected to the switch:

 Network Address 10.1.1.0/24 Router 10.1.1.1 PC1 10.1.1.10 PC2 10.1.1.11

PC3 ||10.1.1.12 || PC4 ||10.1.1.254 ||

Figure 2 shows the Network Address and expands it into binary. The last eight bits is the host portion. The rule for a network address is all 0 bits in the host portion. This is true for each of the four computers:

Network Portion Host Portion 10               1               1 0 00001010         00000001         00000001 00000000

Figure 3 shows the Host Address of the computer with the IP address of 10.1.1.10. TThe rule for a Host Address is any combination of 0 and 1 bits in the host portion of the address but cannot contain all o bits or all 1 bits:

Network Portion Host Portion 10               1               1 10 00001010         00000001         00000001 00001010

Figure 4 shows the the Broadcast Address. The rule for this address is all 1 bits in the host portion:

Network Portion Host Portion 10               1               1 255 00001010         00000001         00000001 11111111

### 8.1.2 IPv4 Subnet Mask >8.1.2.4 First Host and Last Host Addresses

The 2 figures on this page show the same network as on the previous page.

Figure 1 shows the first available IP address on the network. The rule is all 0 bits in the host portion except for the right-most bit, which will be set to 1:

Network Portion Host Portion 10               1               1 255 00001010         00000001         00000001 00000001

Figure 2 shows the last available IP address on the network. The rule is all 1 bits in the host portion except for the right-most bit, which will be set to 0:

Network Portion Host Portion 10               1               1 255 00001010         00000001         00000001 11111110

### 8.1.2 IPv4 Subnet Mask >8.1.2.5 Bitwise AND Operation

The 4 figures on this page shows the process of ANDing a 1 bit with a 1 bit using the 192.168.10.10/24 address. The IP address and the subnet mask are both listed in binary with the IP address above the subnet mask:

11000000     10101000     0000101000001010
11111111       11111111       1111111100000000

In figure 1 the first two bits in the first octet for the IP address and the subnet mask are both 1 bits so the network address will start with the left most two bits set to 1. The next octet has the first, third and fifth bits from left to right set to 1 in the IP address, so these bits become set to 1 in the network address. The third octet also has the first, third and fifth bits from left to right set to 1 in the IP address, so these bits become set to 1 in the network address.

11000000     10101000     0000101000001010
11111111       11111111       1111111100000000
11______     1_1_1___       ___1_1_________

Figure 2 fills in the blanks in the network address with 0 bits since ANDing a 0 and a 1 will result in 0:

11000000       10101000     0000101000001010
11111111       11111111       1111111100000000
11000000     101010000     00001010________

Figure 3 is ANDing a 0 and a 0, which is 0. The subnet mask is all 0 bits in the host portion, so the host octet is all 0 bits:

11000000       10101000       0000101000001010
11111111       11111111       1111111100000000
11000000     101010000     000010100000_0_0

Figure 4 is ANDing a 1 and a 0, which will equal 0. This causes all the host bits to be 0 bits and results in the network identification address of 192.168.10.10/24:

11000000       10101000       0000101000001010
11111111       11111111       1111111100000000
11000000     101010000     0000101000000000

### 8.1.2 IPv4 Subnet Mask >8.1.2.6 Importance of ANDing

The figure on this page illustrates the importance of ANDing a 1 bit with a 1 bit using the 192.168.10.10/24 address. The IP address and the subnet mask are both listed in binary with the IP address above the subnet mask:

IPv4 Address Subnet Mask Network Address 192     .     168     .     10     .   10 Binary 11000000     10101000     00001010 00001010 255     .     255     .     255     .   0 Binary 11111111     11111111     11111111 00000000 192     .     168     .     10     .     0 Binary 11000000     101010000     00001010 00000000

### 8.1.2 IPv4 Subnet Mask >8.1.2.7: Lab - Using the Windows Calculator with Network Addresses

See Lab Descriptions.

### 8.1.2 IPv4 Subnet Mask >8.1.2.8: Lab - Converting IPv4 Addresses to Binary

See Lab Descriptions.

### 8.1.2 IPv4 Subnet Mask >8.1.2.9 Activity - ANDing to Determine the Network Address

The figure on this page is an interactive media element that presents the learner with a host address and a subnet mask in both decimal and binary. The learner is asked to perform the ANDing and provide the network address in both binary and decimal. For example:

 Host Address 10 177 153 1123 Subnet Mask 255 255 255 248 Host Address in Binary 00001010 10110001 10011001 01111011 Subnet Mask in Binary 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111000 Network Address in Binary Network Address in Decimal

The figure also has the following 3 buttons:

• Check
• Reset
• New Number

### 8.1.3 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast >8.1.3.1 Assigning a Static IPv4 Address to a Host

Figure 1 on this page shows the graphical user interface for the network adapter properties for a Windows computer and it is highlighting the IPv4 setting option.

Figure 2 on this page shows the IPv-4 properties window and the option for static addressing is selected. In the figure the IP address, subnet mask and a default gateway are being configured.

### 8.1.3 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast >8.1.3.2 Assigning a Dynamic IPv4 Address to a Host

Figure 1 on this page shows the IP4 properties window and in the window the setting for the adapter to automatically obtain an IP address is selected.

Figure 2 on this page is a command prompt window showing the output of the IP config command, which is displaying the IP address, subnet mask, default gateways, and DNS server address

### 8.1.3 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast >8.1.3.3 Unicast Transmission

The figure on this page is an animation showing a unicast transmission. A computer with the IP address of 172.16.4.1 needs to send a packet to a network printer with the IP address of 172.16.4.253. The packet is sent to a switch and then the packet is forwarded to the printer.

### 8.1.3 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast >8.1.3.5 Multicast Transmission

The figure on this page is an animation of a multicast transmission. A computer with the IP address of 172.16.4.1 is sending a multicast message to the multicast address of 224.10.10.5. Two devices on the switch are members of this multicast group and they each receive a copy of the frame.

### 8.1.3 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast >8.1.3.6 Activity - Unicast, Broadcast, or Multicast

The figure on this page is an interactive media element that presents the learner with a network and a destination IP address from the source host. The network consists of a switch connected to a source host and five other computers.

The figure also has the following 2 buttons:

• Start
• Reset

When Start is selected the learner is given 10 seconds to select the host(s) which will receive a packet based on the address type (Unicast, Broadcast, or Multicast). For example:

Source Host192.168.100.255
PC1192.168.100.1255.5.77.126
PC2192.168.100.2237.192.126.17
PC3192.168.100.3
PC4192.168.100.4237.192.126.17
PC5192.168.100.5255.5.77.126

### 8.1.3 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast >8.1.3.7 Activity - Calculate the Network, Broadcast and Host Addresses

The figure on this page is an interactive media element that presents the learner with an IP address and a prefix. The learner is asked to calculate the network, broadcast, first usable host, and last usable host addresses. The learner is asked to enter the last octet of each of the addresses in both binary and decimal. They are also asked to enter the full address in decimal:

Type of AddressEnter LAST octet of network
prefix in binary
Enter LAST octet
in decimal
decimal
Network

The figure also has the following 4 buttons:

• Check
• Reset
• New Values
• Show Me

### 8.1.3 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast >8.1.3.8 Packet Tracer - Investigate Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast Traffic

#### Objectives:

Part 1: Generate Unicast Traffic
Part 3: Investigate Multiicast Traffic

The figure on this page shows three private local area networks. The first one is the 192.168.1.0 network, the second is the 172.16.0.0 network, and the third is the 10.0.0.0 network. Routers that are connected to the Internet will not forward packets from these networks to the Internet.

### 8.1.4 Types of IPv4 Addresses >8.1.4.2 Activity - Pass or Block IPv4 Addresses

The figure on this page is an interactive media element that presents the learner with a packet from a specified IP address.

The figure also has the following 4 buttons:

• Pass
• Block
• Start
• Reset

When Start is selected a packet is presented, the learner needs to decide if the Internet router will pass or block the packet based on the destination IP address. The learner is given 5 points at the start of the activity and points are added or subtracted according to the decision made. The activity continues until the the point total reaches either 0 or 10.

The figure on this page shows two local area networks, and each is using a special IPv4 network address. The first network is using the link-local network 169.254.0.0/16. Routers that are connected to the Internet will not forward packets from this network to the Internet. The second network is using the TEST-NET address of 192.0.2.0/24 network. Routers that are connected to the Internet will not forward packets from this network to the Internet.

11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000/8(255.0.0.0) 16,777,214
11111111.10000000.00000000.00000000/9(255.128.0.0)8,388,606
11111111.11000000.00000000.00000000/10(255.192.0.0)4,194,302
11111111.11100000.00000000.00000000/11(255.224.0.0)2,097,150
11111111.11110000.00000000.00000000/12(255.240.0.0)1,048,574
11111111.11111000.00000000.00000000/13(255.248.0.0)524,286
11111111.11111100.00000000.00000000/14(255.252.0.0)262,142
11111111.11111110.00000000.00000000/15(255.254.0.0)131,070
11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000/16(255.255.0.0)65,534
11111111.11111111.10000000.00000000/17(255.255.128.0)32,766
11111111.11111111.11000000.00000000/18(255.255.192.0)16,382
11111111.11111111.11100000.00000000/19(255.255.224.0)8,190
11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000/20(255.255.240.0)4,094
11111111.11111111.11111000.00000000/21(255.255.248.0)2,046
11111111.11111111.11111100.00000000'/22(255.255.252.0)1,022
11111111.11111111.11111110.00000000/23(255.255.254.0)510
11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000/24(255.255.255.0)254
11111111.11111111.11111111.10000000/25(255.255.255.128)126
11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000/26(255.255.255.192)62
11111111.11111111.11111111.11100000/27(255.255.255.224)30
11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000/28(255.255.255.240)14
11111111.11111111.11111111.11111000/29(255.255.255.248)6
11111111.11111111.11111111.11111100/30(255.255.255.252)2
11111111.11111111.11111111.11111110/31(255.255.255.254)0
11111111.11111111.11111111.11111111/32(255.255.255.255)Host Route

 AddressClass 1st octet range(decimal) 1st octet bits(bold bits do not change) Network (N) andHost (H) parts of address Default subnet mask(decimal, Network partof address in bold) Number of possible network hosts per network A 1-127** 00000000-01111111 N.H.H.H 255.0.0.0 128 (2^7) 16,777,214 (2^24-2 B 1-127** 10000000-10111111 N.N.H.H 255.255.0.0 16,384 (2^14) 65,534 (2^16-2) C 1-127** 11000000-11011111 N.N.N.H 255.255.255.0 2,097,152 (2^21) 254 (2^8-2 D 1-127** 11100000-11101111 NA (multicast) E 1-127** 11110000-111111111 NA (experimental)

Note: All zeros (0) and all ones (1) are invalid hosts addresses

The figure on this page is a map of the world and places the five Regional Internet Registries on the geographical area they represent. See page description for details.

### 8.1.4 Types of IPv4 Addresses >8.1.4.6 Assignment of IP Addresses (Cont.)

The three figures on this page highlight the three tiers of ISP. two Tier 3 ISPs are connected to one of two Tier 2 ISPs which in turn are connected to the Tier 1 ISP. The Tier 1 ISP is connected to the Internet Backbone.

Figure 1 highlights Tier 1 ISPs. A Tier 1 ISP will have direct, multiple connections to the Internet backbone, providing reliability. It will primarily serve very large companies and Tier 2 ISPs.

Figure 2 highlights Tier 2 ISPs. A Tier 2 ISP connects to the Internet via a Tier 1 ISP. It willy primarily serve large companies and Tier 3 ISPs.

Figure 3 highlights Tier 3 ISPs. A Tier 3 ISP connect to the Internet via a Tier 2 ISP. It primarily serves small to medium companies and homes.

### 8.1.4 Types of IPv4 Addresses >8.1.4.7 Activity - Public or Private IPv\$ Addresses

The figure on this page is an interactive media element that presents the learner with lists of eight IPv4 addresses. The leaner needs to classify them as either public or private. For example, one list of IP addresses is:

 172.16.35.2 192.168.3.5 192.0.2.15 64.104.0.22 209.165.201.30 192.168.11.5 172.16.30.30 10.55.3.168

The figure also has the following 2 buttons:

• Check
• Reset

### 8.1.4 Types of IPv4 Addresses >8.1.4.8: Lab - Identifying IPv4 Addresses

See Lab Descriptions.

### 8.2.1 IPv4 Issues >8.2.1.1 The Nees for IPv6

The figure on this page shows an infographic titled “The Internet of Things” stating that:

During 2008, the number of things connected to the internet exceeded the number of people on earth. by the year 2020 there will be fifty billion.

These things are not just smartphones and tablets. They're everything. A Dutch startup, Sparked, is using wireless sensors on cattle so that when one is sick or pregnant, it sends a message to the farmer. Each cow transmits 200 mb of data per year.

We can monitor ourselves this way too. Corventismakes a wireless cardiac monitor that physicians can check for health risks.

And this is just the beginning. These things are starting to talk to each other and develop their own intelligence. Imagine a scenario where your meeting was pushed back forty five minutes. This is communicated to your alarm clock, which allows you five extra minutes sleep, signals your car to start in five minutes to melt the ice accumulated in overnight snow storms and signals your coffee maker to turn on five minutes late as well.. Your car knows it will need gas to make it to the train station. Fill-ups usually take five minutes. There was an accident on your driving route causing a fifteen minute detour and your train is running twenty minutes behind schedule.

We are all on our way. By the end of 2011, 20 typical households will generate more internet traffic than the entire internet in 2008.

Cisco's Planetary Skin will use billions of networked sensors on land and in sea, air and space to detect and predict changes to the environment.

We already have cameras and computers that are one cubic millimeter. You could fit one hundred and fifty of them on an icon.

With the IPv6 protocol, we will have 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 possible internet addresses. That's 100 for every atom on the face of the Earth.

Technological limitations are receding exponentially. When billions of things are connected, talking and learning, the only limitation left will be our own imaginations.

### 8.2.1 IPv4 Issues >8.2.1.2 IPv4 and IPv6 Coexistence

The three figures on this page show the three IPv4 to IPv6 migration categories.

Figure 1 illustrates Dual-stack. A Dual-stack IPv4 and IPv6 router is connected to three network segments. Each has a computer running IPv4 and IPv6 in Dual-stack mode, which allows the two protocols to co-exist.

Figure 2 illustrates Tunnelling. It shows two Dual-stack routers. Each router has a network segment on one of the Fast Ethernet ports. There is a computer on each network segment that is running only IPv6. There is a an IPv4 only tunnel connecting the two routers. The tunnel encapsulates the IPv6 packet within an IPv4 packet for transmission.

Figure 3 illustrates Translation. It shows a router that has an IPv6 only segment on one Fast Ethernet port and an IPv4 only segment on another Fast Ethernet port. The router is serving as a Network Address Translation (NAT) 64 device allowing IPv6 enabled devices to communicate with IPv4 enabled devices.

### 8.2.1 IPv4 Issues >8.2.1.3 Activity - IPv4 Issues and Solutions

The figure on this page is an interactive media element that has the learner match 5 terms with the correct description.

The terms are:

 dual Stack IPv4 IPv6 Tunneling Translation

The descriptions are:

 128 bit address/340 undercillion addresses. 32-bit address/4.3 billion addresses. Transports an IPv6 packet over IPv4 networks. Allows NAT to be used in both IPv6 and IPv4 networks. Allows IPv4 and IPv6 to coexist on the same network.

The figure also has the following 2 buttons:

• Check
• Reset

Figure 1 on this page is a table listing the decimal numbers from zero to fifteen with the hexadecimal and binary equivalents:

000000
110001
220010
330011
440100
550101
660110
770111
881000
991001
A101010
D131101
E141110
F151111

Figure 2 on this page lists two digit hexadecimal values, and their decimal and binary equivalents for a select set of numbers:

0000000 0000
0110000 0001
0220000 0010
0330000 0011
0440000 0100
0550000 0101
0660000 0110
0770000 0111
0880000 1000
0A100000 1010
0F150000 1111
10160001 0000
20320010 0000
40640100 0000
801281000 0000
C01921100 0000
CA2021100 1010
F02401111 0000
FF2551111 1111

Figure 1 on this page shows the preferred format for writing an IPv6 address, which is x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x:

Hextets
Hextet 1Hextet 2Hextet 3Hextet 4Hextet 5Hextet 6Hextet 7Hextet 8
xxxxxxxx
0000
to
FFFF
0000
to
FFFF
0000
to
FFFF
0000
to
FFFF
0000
to
FFFF
0000
to
FFFF
0000
to
FFFF
0000
to
FFFF

Four hexadecimal dihits = sixteen binary digits:

 x 0000toFFFF 000to111 000to111 000to111 000to111

Preferred Format Examples
2001:ODB8:0000:1111:0000:0000:0000:0200
2001:ODB8:0000:00A3:ABCD:0000:0000:1234
2001:ODB8:000A:0001:0000:0000:0000:0100
2001:ODB8:AAAA:0001:0000:0000:0000:0200
FE80:0000:0000:0000:0123:4567:89AB:CDEF
FE80:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001
FF02:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001
FF02:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001:FF00:0200
0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001
0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000

The eight figures on this page show several examples of how omitting leading 0s (marked in bold) can be used to reduce the size of an IPv6 address.

Figure 1:

 Preferred 2001:0DB8:0000:1111:0000:0000:0000:0200 No leading 0s 2001:DB8:0:1111:0:0:0.200

Figure 2:

 Preferred 2001:0DB8:0000:A300:ABCD:0000:0000:1234 No leading 0s 2001:DB8:0:A300:ABCD:0:0:1234

Figure 3:

 Preferred 2001:0DB8:000A:1000:0000:0000:0000:0100 No leading 0s 2001:DB8:A:1000:0:0:0:100

Figure 4:

 Preferred FE80:0000:0000:0000:0123:4567:89AB:CDEF No leading 0s FE80:0:0:0:123:4567:89AB:CDEF

Figure 5:

 Preferred FF02:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001 No leading 0s FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:1

Figure 6:

 Preferred FF02:0000:0000:0000:000:0001:FF00:0200| No leading 0s FF02:0:0:0:0:1:FF00:200

Figure 7:

 Preferred 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001 No leading 0s 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1

Figure 8:

 Preferred 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 No leading 0s 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0

### 8.2.2 IPv6 Addressing >8.2.2.4 Rule 2 - Omitting all 0 Segments

The seven figures on this page show several examples of how using the double colon (::) and omitting leading 0s can reduce the sixe of an IPv6 address.

Figure 1:

 Preferred 2001:0DB8:0000:1111:0000:0000:0000:0200 No leading 0s 2001:DB8:0:1111:0:0:0.200 Compressed 2001:DB8:0:1111::200

Figure 2:

 Preferred 2001:0DB8:0000:0000:ABCD:0000:0000:0100 No leading 0s 2001:DB8:0:0:ABCD:0:0:100 Compressed (option 1) 2001:DB8::ABCD:0:0:100 Compressed (option 2) 2001:DB8:0:ABCD::100

Only one set of double colons (::) may be used.

Figure 3:

 Preferred FE80:0000:0000:0000:0123:4567:89AB:CDEF No leading 0s FE80:0:0:0:123:4567:89AB:CDEF Compressed FE80::123:4567:89AB:CDEF

Figure 4:

 Preferred FF02:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001 No leading 0s FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 Compressed FF02::1

Figure 5:

 Preferred FF02:0000:0000:0000:000:0001:FF00:0200| No leading 0s FF02:0:0:0:0:1:FF00:200 Compressed FF02::1:FF00:200

Figure 6:

 Preferred 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001 No leading 0s 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 Compressed ::1

Figure 7:

 Preferred 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000 No leading 0s 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 Compressed ::

Figures one through 10 on this page are interactive media elements that present the learner with a full IPv6 address. First the learner is required to enter the address by omitting leading zeros, and then by applying the double colon method.

12001:0000:0DB8:1111:0000:0000:0200
22013:0000:0123:4567:89AB:CDEF:0000:0001
30000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:000:0001
42012:ABCD:EF01:2345:0678:0910:AAAA:BBBB
5AB1E:2B00:0000:1234:5678:9101:1112:1113
6BB2B:EF12:BFF3:9125:1111:0101:1111:0101
71129:1984:2233:4455:6677:0000:0000:0101
81111:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0101:1111
91031:1976:0001:0002:0003:0004:0000:0101
100000:0000:0000:1234:6678:9101:0000:34AB

Each figure also has the following 2 buttons:

• Check
• Reset

The figure on this page shows a router with a switch connected on one of the Fast Ethernet ports. There are two computers, a server, and a network printer attached to the switch. Computer 1 is sending an IP unicast message to the server.

### 8.2.3 Types of IPv6 Addresses >8.2.3.2 IPv6 Prefix Length

 64 bits 64 bits Prefix Interface ID

Example: 2001:0DB8:000A::/64

 64 bits 64 bits 2001:0DB8:000A:0000 0000:0000:0000:0000

The figure on this page shows the six types of IPv6 unicast addresses with a few examples:

Global Unicast
Loopback//::1/128
Unique Local
FC00::/7 - FDFF::/7
Embedded IPv4

Figure 1 on this page shows an example of communication using IPv6 link-local addresses. A router with a switch on a Fast Ethernet port. There are two computers, a server, and a printer attached to the switch. Computer 1 sends a job to the printer. The switch will forward the print job because the two devices are on the same link. In the figure there is a red X on the two other Fast Ethernet ports, not the one with the switch. The x indicates that the router will not route any link local addresses.

RouterFE80::1/64
Computer 1FE80::AAAA/64
Computer 2FE80::BBBB/64
Server2001:FE80::CCCC/64
Printer2001:FE80::DDDD/64

 10 bits Remaining54 bits 64 bits 1111 1110 Interface ID FE80::/10 Automatically orManual Configuration

### 8.2.3 Types of IPv6 Addresses >8.2.3.5 Activity - Identify Types of IPv6 Addresses

The figure on this page is an interactive media element that has the learner match IPv6 address terms to the proper definition.

 /64 Link-local Global unicast Unspecified Loopback

The definitions are:

 Unique, Internet routable IPv6 address (dynamic or static) IPv6 address represented as ::1 (compressed format) IPv6 address represented as :: (compressed format) cannot be assigned to a interface Typical IPv6 prefix used to indicate the network portion of the address Used to communicate with other devices on the same IPv6 subnet

The figure also has the following 2 buttons:

• Check
• Reset

### 8.2.4 IPv6 Unicast Addresses >8.2.4.1 Structure of an IPv6 Global Unicast Address

Figure one shows the structure and range of a global unicast address and the range of the first hextet:

 Global Routing Prefix Subnet ID Interface ID

The range of the first hextet is:

 0010 0000 0000 0000 (2000)to0011 1111 1111 1111 (3FFF)

Figure 2 on this page shows the structure of a global unicast address using a /48 global routing prefix:

 48 bits 16 bits 64 bits Global Routing Prefix Subnet ID Interface ID A /48 routing prefix + 16 bit subnet ID = /64 prefix 64 bits

Interface ID = 4 hextets: :10

Interface ID = 4 hextets: :0000: 0000: 0000: 0010

Subnet ID: 0001
Interface ID: 0000: 0000: 0000: 0200

### 8.2.4 IPv6 Unicast Addresses >8.2.4.2 Static Configuration of a Global Unicast Address

Figure 1 on this page shows a router with two active gigabit Ethernet ports with a switch on each port and a PC connected to each switch. The router also has an active serial port that is connected to a WAN cloud.

Figure 2 on this page shows the first step in configuring IPv6 routing, which is assigning addresses to the router ports. Command line interface mode is shown in the figure for the router:

`R1(config)#interface gigabitethernet 0/0R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:db8:acad:1::1/64R1(config-if)#no shutdownR1(config-if)#exitR1(config)#interface gigabitethernet 0/1R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:db8:acad:2::1/64R1(config-if)#no shutdownR1(config-if)#exitR1(config-if)#interface serial 0/0/0R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:db8:acad:3::1/64R1(config-if)#clock rate 56000R1(config-if)#no shutdown`

Figure 3 on this page shows the Windows Internet Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6) Properties dialog box displaying the default gateway for PC1 as 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1

Figure 4 on this page is a Syntax Checker used to practice entering the command to configure the IPv6 global unicast addresses in the following order. The Syntax Checker is inaccessible:

The figure also has the following 3 buttons:

• Reset: resets the Syntax Checker
• Show Me: displays the next step in the configuration process
• Show All: displays the completed configuration process as follows:
`Router(config)#interface gigabitethernet 0/0Router(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:db8:acad:1::1/64Router(config-if)#no shutdown%LINK-5-CHANGED: interface gigabitethernet 0/0, changed state to up%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on InterfaceGigabitEthernet0/0, changed state to upRouter(config-if)#interface gigabitethernet 0/1Router(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:db8:acad:2::1/64Router(config-if)#no shutdown%LINK-5-CHANGED: interface gigabitethernet 0/0, changed state to up%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on InterfaceGigabitEthernet0/1, changed state to upRouter(config-if)#interface serial 0/0/0Router(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:db8:acad:3::1/64Router(config-if)#no shutdown%LINK-5-CHANGED: interface gigabitethernet 0/0, changed state to up%LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0/0/0, changed state to up`
You successfully configured the R1 interfaces with IPv6 addresses

### 8.2.4 IPv6 Unicast Addresses >8.2.4.3 Dynamic Configuration of a Global Unicast Address using SLAAC

The figure on this page shows the router solicitation process by displaying a computer sending the following request for IPv6 addressing information to all IPv6 routers, "I need addressing information from the router.". The figure also shows the following router advertisement message being sent by a router to all IPv6 nodes, "Option 1 (SLAAC Only) - I'm everything you need (Prefix, Prefix-length, Default Gateway)".

 Option 1 (SLAAC Only) "I'm everything you need (Prefix, Prefix-length, Default Gateway)" Option 2 (SLAAC and DHCPv6) "Here is my information but you need to get other information such as DNS addresses from a DHCPv6 server." Option 3 (DHCPv6 Only) "I can't help you. Ask a DHCPv6 server for all your information."

### 8.2.4 IPv6 Unicast Addresses >8.2.4.4 Dynamic Configuration of a Global Unicast Address using DHCPv6

The figure on this page shows the router solicitation process by displaying a computer sending the following request for IPv6 addressing information to all IPv6 routers, "I need addressing information from the router.". The figure also shows the following router advertisement message being sent by a router to all IPv6 nodes, "Option 2 (SLAAC and DHCPv6) - Here is my information but you need to get other information such as DNS addresses from a DHCPv6 server.". The computer then sends out the following DHCPv6 solicit request looking for DNS information, "I need addressing information from the DHCPv6 server.".

Note: An RA with Option 3 (DHCPv6 Only) enabled will require the client to obtain all information from the DHCPv6 Server.

### 8.2.4 IPv6 Unicast Addresses >8.2.4.5 EUI-64 Process or Randomly Generated

 OUI(Organisation Unique Identifier)24 bits Device Identifier24 bits FC 99 47 75 CE E0

Step 1: The hexadecimal MAC address is split between the Organizationally Unique Identifier and the device ID, and converted into binary.

Step 2: The hexadecimal value FFFE is inserted between the OUI and the device ID to make the 64 bits.

Step 3: Locate the seventh bit in from the left on the OUI and flip the value. This is the Universally slash Locally bit, also known as the U slash L bit.

 EUI-64 Process OUI(Organisation Unique Identifier)24 bits Device Identifier24 bits Step 1 1111 1100 1001 1001 0100 0111 0111 0101 1100 1110 1110 0000 Step 2 1111 1100 1001 1001 0100 0111 1111 1111 1111 1110 0111 0101 1100 1110 1110 0000 Step 3 1111 1110 1001 1001 0100 0111 1111 1111 1111 1110 0111 0101 1100 1110 1110 0000 Modified EUI-64 Interface IDin Hexadecimal Notation FE 99 47 FF FE 75 CE E0

Figure 2 on this page shows that an easy way to identify that an address was more than likely created using EUI-64 is the FFFE located in the middle of the Interface ID>

`R1#show interface gigabitethernet 0/0GigabitEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up`
`Hardware is CN Gigabit Ethernet, address is fc99:4775:c3e0`
`(bia fc99:4775:c3e0)<Output Omitted>`
`R1#show ipv6 interface briefGigabitEthernet0/0 [up/up]`
`FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E0 (Link-local Address using EUI-64)2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1`
`GigabitEthernet0/1 [up/up]`
`FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E1 (Link-local Address using EUI-64)2001:DB8:ACAD:2::1`
`Serial0/0/0 [up/up]`
`FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E0 (Link-local Address using EUI-64)2001:DB8:ACAD:3::1`
`Serial0/0/1 [administratively down/down]`
`unassigned`
`R1#`

 1111 1110 10 Interface ID FE80::/10 EUI-64 Process64 bitsRamdomly Generated Number

`R1(config)#interface gigabitethernet 0/0R1(config-if)#ipv6 address fe80::1 ?`
`Link-local Use link-local address`
`R1(config-if)#ipv6 address fe80::1 link-localR1(config-if)#exitR1(config)#interface gigabitethernet 0/1R1(config-if)#ipv6 address fe80::1 link localR1(config-if)#exitR1(config)#interface serial 0/0/0R1(config-if)#ipv6 address fe80::1 link localR1(config-if)#`

Figure 2 on this page is showing the output of the show IPv6 interface brief command:

`R1#show ipv6 interface briefGigabitEthernet0/0 [up/up]`
`FE80::1 (Statically configured link-local address)2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1`
`GigabitEthernet0/1 [up/up]`
`FE80::1 (Statically configured link-local address)2001:DB8:ACAD:2::1`
`Serial0/0/0 [up/up]`
`FE80::1 (Statically configured link-local address)2001:DB8:ACAD:3::1`
`Serial0/0/1 [administratively down/down]`
`unassigned`
`R1#`

Figure 1 on this page shows a router (R1) with two active gigabit Ethernet ports (G0/0 & G0/1) with a switch on each port (S1 & S2) and a PC connected to each switch (PC1 & PC2). The router also has an active serial port (S0/0/0) that is connected to a WAN cloud. The figure also shows the output of the show IPv6 interface brief command:

`R1#show ipv6 interface briefGigabitEthernet0/0 [up/up]`
`FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E02001:DB8:ACAD:1::1`
`GigabitEthernet0/1 [up/up]`
`FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E12001:DB8:ACAD:2::1`
`Serial0/0/0 [up/up]`
`FE80::FE99:47FF:FE75:C3E02001:DB8:ACAD:3::1`
`Serial0/0/1 [administratively down/down]`
`unassigned`
`R1#`

Figure 2 on this page shows the output from the show IPv6 route command. This command lists the I.P. v-6 routing table for the router:

`R1#show ipv6 routeIPv6 Routing Table - default - 7 entriesCodes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, U - Per-userStatic<output omitted>`
via GigabitEthernet0/0, directly connected
via GigabitEthernet0/1, directly connected
via Serial0/0, directly connected
L     FF00::/8 [0/0]
R1#

Figure 3 on this page shows the IPv6 ping command and output from sending a ping request to a computer:

`R1#ping 2001:db8:acad:1::10Type escape sequence to abort.Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 2001:db8:acad:1::10, timeoutis 2 seconds!!!!!Success rate is 100 percent (5/5)R1#`

Figure 4 on this page is a Syntax Checker used to practice entering the commands to verify the IPv6 interface configuration as stated in figures 1 - 3.

The figure also has the following 3 buttons:

• Reset: resets the Syntax Checker
• Show Me: displays the next step in the configuration process
• Show All: displays the completed configuration process as follows:
1. Enter the show command that will display a brief summary of the IPv6 interface status.
2. Enter the show command that will display the IPv6 routing table.
3. Verify connectivity to PC2 at 2001:db8:acad:1::10.

The figure on this page shows a router with a switch connected to one gigabit Ethernet port. There are 2 computers, a server, and a printer connected to the switch. The router is sending an IPv6 all-nodes multicast message from source address 2001:DB8:ACAD:1::1 to the destination .Pv6 address FF02::1, which is the All-nodes multicast group. The message is sent out to all the I.Pv6 enabled devices that are connected to the switch.

The figure on this page shows an IPv6 solicited-node multicast address being formed from an IPv6 global unicast address. The example in the figure lists the unicast address bits in hexadecimal, therefore the format of the first one hundred four binary bits in hexadecimal is the combination of the global routing prefix, the subnet ID, and a portion of the interface ID. The remaining twenty-four binary bits are the last twenty-four bits of the interface ID. The figure then shows the first one hundred four bits being changed to form the solicited node multicast address.The final twenty-four bits keep their original values.

 Global Routing Prefix Subnet ID Interface ID 104 bits 24 bits 2001:0DB8:ACAD 0001 0000:0000:00 00:0010

 FF02 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 FF 00:0010

### 8.2.5 IPv6 Multicast Addresses >8.2.5.3: Packet Tracer - Configuring IPv6 Addressing

#### Objectives:

Part 1: Configure IPv6 Addressing on the Router
Part 2: Configure IPv6 Addressing on Servers
Part 3: Configure IPv6 Addressing on Clients

Part 4: Test and Verify Network Connectivity

See Lab Descriptions.

### 8.2.5 IPv6 Multicast Addresses >8.2.5.5: Lab - Configuring IPv6 Addresses on Network Devices

See Lab Descriptions.

## 8.3 Connectivity Verification

### 8.3.1 ICMP >8.3.1.1 ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 Messages

The figure on this page is an animation that shows computer H1 with an IPv4 address of 192.168.10.1 sending an ICMP echo request to computer H2 with an IPv4 address of 192.168.30.1. H1 has a callout saying, "Is H2 reachable?". The message travels from H1 through a switch to a router. That router sends the request to another router, then to a switch, and finally to H2. H2 sends back an ICMP reply. H2 has a callout saying, "Yes, I am here.".

The figure on this page shows a computer sending an IPv6 router solicitation message. The computer has a callout saying, "I need addressing information from the router.". The router responds with a router advertisement message. This message can have one of the following three options configured:

• "I'm everything you need (Prefix, Prefix-length, Default Gateway).".
• "Here is my information but you need to get other information such as DNS addresses from a DHCPv6 server.".

The figure on this page shows two additional messages within the ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol, the neighbor solicitation, and the duplicate address detection. A neighbor solicitation message is sent across a link by a device that is looking for the MAC address of a known IPv6 address.

In the figure, PC1 is sending a Address Resolution message to FF02:0:0:0:0:1:FF00::20. PC1 has a callout saying, "I need the Etherenet MAC address of the device that has this unicast address.

In the figure, PC2 is sending a Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) message to FF02:0:0:0:0:FF00::30 . PC2 has a callout saying, "Before I use this address is anyone else on this link using this global unicast address?

### 8.3.2 Testing and Verification >8.3.2.1 Ping - Testing the Local Stack

The figure on this page shows the command line utility to test the local TCP/IP stack on a computer running IPv4. The command is:

C:\>ping 127.0.0.1

Pinging the local host confirms that TCP/IP is installed and working on the local host.

Pinging 127.0.0.1 causes a device to ping itself.

### 8.3.2 Testing and Verification >8.3.2.2 Ping - Testing Connectivity to the Local LAN

The figure on this page shows a router with a switch connected to its Fast Ethernet port F0/1 and with IPv4 address 10.0.0.254. The switch has a computer connected to it. The computer is testing connectivity to the router, which is the default gateway, by using ping to send an echo request to the router port. The command used is:

C:\>ping 10.0.0.254

The router responds with an echo reply.

### 8.3.2 Testing and Verification >8.3.2.3 Ping - Testing Connectivity to Remote

The figure on this page is an animation that shows a computer sending an echo request to a remote host. The echo request is sent to a switch which then forwards the request to a router. The receiving router sends the request to a switch, which then directs it to the destination host. The host will respond by sending an echo reply back to the sender.

### 8.3.2 Testing and Verification >8.3.2.5: Packet tracer - Verifying IPv4 and IPv6 Addressing

#### Objectives:

Part 1: Complete the Addressing Table Documentation
Part 2: Test Connectivity Using Ping
Part 3: Discover the Path by Tracing the Route

### 8.3.2 Testing and Verification >8.3.2.6: Packet tracer - Pinging and Tracing to Test the Path

#### Objectives:

Part 1: Test and Restore IPv4 Connectivity
Part 2: Test and Restore IPv6 Connectivity

### 8.3.2 Testing and Verification >8.3.2.7: Lab - Testing Network Connectivity with Ping and Traceroute

See Lab Descriptions.

### 8.3.2 Testing and Verification >8.3.2.8: Packet tracer - Troubleshooting IPv4 and IPv6 Addressing

#### Objectives:

Part 1: Troubleshoot First issue
Part 2: Troubleshoot Second issue
Part 3: Troubleshoot Third issue

## 8.4 Summary

### 8.4.1 Summary >8.4.1.1: Class Activity - The Internet of Everything...Naturally!

• Five students sitting at individual desks in a classroom.
• A set of network wires.
• A tree
• A person in a hospital gown.

### Objectives:

Explain the need for IPv6 network addresses.
This is an application based activity. You will develop a plan to show how IoE subnets, unicasts, and multicasts could be used in our daily lives to affect data communication.

### 8.4.1 Summary >8.4.1.3 Summary

The figure on this page shows the breakdown of an IPv4 address. The address is listed in both decimal and binary. This is a class C IPv4 network so the first three octets represent the network portion and the last host represents the host portion.IPv4 Address:

 Network Portion Host Portion IPv4 Address (decimal) 192    .    168     .    10 10 IPv4 Address (Binary) 11000000    10101000    00001010 00001010 Subnet Maskdecimal 255    .    255     .    255 0 Subnet Maskbinary 11111111    11111111    11111111 00000000

End of Chapter 8: IP Addressing.

Next - Chapter 9: Subnetting IP Networks.