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Chapter 5 - Operating Systems

5.0 Operating Systems

5.0.1 Introduction >5.0.1.1 Introduction

The image on this page shows the following different Windows operating systems:

  • Windows XP Home edition
  • Windows Vista Business
  • Windows 7 Ultimate

5.1 Modern Operating Systems

5.1.1 OS Terms and Characteristics >5.1.1.1 Terms

The image on this page shows the Windows 7 login screen which displays two user accounts. These are Admin and John Doe. The Admin account is currently logged on to the computer.

5.1.1 OS Terms and Characteristics >5.1.1.2 Basic Functions of an Operating System

Image 1 on this page shows the command line interface where you type commands to execute programs or actions within the computer.

Image 2 on this page shows the Windows 7 graphical user interface with the Start Menu open.

5.1.1 OS Terms and Characteristics >5.1.1.3 Processor Architecture

The figure on this page is a table listing different Windows operating systems.

Windows Operating SystemVersions
Windows 7 Starter32-bit
Windows 7 Home premium32-bit and 64-bit
Windows 7 Professional32-bit and 64-bit
Windows 7 Ultimate32-bit and 64-bit
Windows Vista Home basic32-bit and 64-bit
Windows Vista Home premium32-bit and 64-bit
Windows Vista Business32-bit and 64-bit
Windows Vista Ultimate32-bit and 64-bit
Windows XP Professional32-bit and 64-bit
Windows XP Home32-bit
Windows XP Media centre Edition32-bit

5.1.2 Types of Operating Systems >5.1.2.1 Desktop Operating Systems

The image on this page shows the following different desktop operating systems:

  • Windows 7 Home Premium
  • Windows 7 Professional
  • Windows 7 Ultimate
  • Mac OS X Leopard
  • Ubuntu 12.1

5.1.2 Types of Operating Systems >5.1.2.2 Network Operating Systems

The image on this page shows the following different network operating systems:

  • Redhat Linux
  • Mac OS X Server
  • Windows Server 2008 Standard

5.1.2 Types of Operating Systems >5.1.2.3 Worksheet - Search NOS Certifications and Jobs

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.1.3 Customer Requirements for an Operating System >5.1.3.1 OS Compatible Applications and Environments

The image on this page shows a question mark superimposed over the following different operating systems:

  • Redhat Linux
  • Mac OS X Leopard
  • Windows 7 Professional

5.1.3 Customer Requirements for an Operating System >5.1.3.2 Minimum Hardware Requirements and Compatibility with the OS Platform

The image on this page shows a screen capture of the Windows 7 compatibility centre which lists hardware and software that is compatible with the operating system.

5.1.3 Customer Requirements for an Operating System >5.1.3.3 Comparing OS Requirements

The figure on this page shows the following table listing installation requirements and features for Windows operating system.

CPU RAM Hard Disk Drive Video Adapter Card Features Ideal Use
Windows 7 Starter 1 GHz or faster 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit (x64) processor 1 GB RAM Hard Drive with at least 16GB of available space (32-bit) DirectX 9 graphics device with WDDM 1.0 or later driver
  • Jump lists
  • Pin
  • Snap
  • Windows Search
Good choice for consumer with a netbook
Windows 7 Home Premium 1 GHz or faster 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit (x64) processor 1 GB RAM (32-bit) or 2 GB RAM (64-bit) Hard drive with at least 16 GB of available space (32-bit) or 20 GB (64-bit) DirectX 9 graphics device with WDDM 1.0 or later driver
  • Shake
  • Customizable themes
  • Improved Desktop Navigation
  • Internet TV
  • Home Group
Good choice for home users who want to share media
Windows 7 Professional 1 GHz or faster 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit (x64) processor 1 GB RAM (32-bit) or 2 GB RAM (64-bit) Hard drive with at least 16 GB of available space (32-bit) or 20 GB (64-bit) DirectX 9 graphics device with WDDM 1.0 or later driver
  • Location aware printing
  • Windows XP mode
  • Domain Join
  • Backups to Home or business Network
Good choice for people who use business applications and want to secure data
Windows 7 Ultimate 1 GHz or faster 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit (x64) processor 1 GB RAM (32-bit) or 2 GB RAM (64-bit) Hard drive with at least 16 GB of available space (32-bit) or 20 GB (64-bit) DirectX 9 graphics device with WDDM 1.0 or later drive
  • Bit Locker
  • switch between any of the 35 languages
Good Choice for people who need security, share media, and run multiple business applications
Windows 7 Enterprise 1 GHz or faster 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit (x64) processor 1 GB RAM (32-bit) or 2 GB RAM (64-bit) Hard drive with at least 16 GB of available space (32-bit) or 20 GB (64-bit) DirectX 9 graphics device with WDDM 1.0 or later driver
  • Location aware printing
  • Windows XP Mode
  • Domain Join
  • Backups to home or business network
  • Windows Bit locker Drive encryption
  • Direct Access
Good choice for large businesses that require volume licensing
Windows Vista Home Basic 1 GHz 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit (x64) processor 512 MB of system memory 20 GB hard drive with a least 15 GB available space Support for DirectX 9 graphics and 32 MB of graphics memory
  • User Account Control (UAC)
  • Windows Defender
  • Windows Firewall
  • Instant Search
  • Network and sharing centre
Good choice if you have basic computing needs like email, Web browsing and photo viewing
Windows Vista Home Premium 1 GHz 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit (x64) processor 1 GB of system memory 40 GB hard drive with a least 15 GB available space Support for DirectX 9 graphics with:
  • WDDM Driver
  • 128 MB of graphics memory (minimum)
  • Pixel shader 2.0 in hardware
  • 32-bits per pixel
  • Windows Aero
  • Windows Mobility Centre
  • Windows Meeting Space
  • Windows Sideshow
  • Windows Media Centre
  • Scheduled Backup
  • Windows DVD Maker
  • Windows Movie Maker in HD
Good choice if you need to go beyond the basics with improved productivity and digital entertainment
Windows Vista Business 1 GHz 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit (x64) processor 1 GB of system memory 40 GB hard drive with a least 15 GB available space Support for DirectX 9 graphics with:
  • WDDM Driver
  • 128 MB of graphics memory (minimum)
  • Pixel Shader 2.0 in hardware
  • 32-bits per pixel
  • Windows Complete PC
  • Backup and Restore
  • Windows Fax and Scan
  • Remote Desktop Connection
Good choice if you own or run a small business
Windows Vista Ultimate 1 GHz 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit (x64) processor 1 GB of system memory 40 GB hard drive with a least 15 GB available space Support for DirectX 9 graphics with:
  • WDDM Driver
  • 128 MB of graphics memory (minimum)
  • Pixel Shader 2.0 in hardware
  • 32-bits per pixel
  • Windows Bit Locker Drive encryption
  • Windows Ultimate Extras
Good choice if you use the same computer for work and home use
Windows Vista Enterprise 1 GHz 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit (x64) processor 1 GB of system memory 40 GB hard drive with a least 15 GB available space Support for DirectX 9 graphics with:
  • WDDM Driver
  • 128 MB of graphics memory (minimum)
  • Pixel Shader 2.0 in hardware
  • 32-bits per pixel
  • Windows Complete PC
  • Backup and Restore
  • Windows Fax and Scan
  • Remote Desktop Connection
Good choice for Large businesses that require volume licensing
Windows XP Home
  • 233MHz minimum required
  • 300 MHz or higher recommended
  • Intel Pentium/celer on Family
  • AMD k6/Athlon/Duron Family or compatible
  • 64 MB required
  • 128MB or Higher recommended
  • 1.5 GB available hard disk space minimum required
  • More is recommended if installing over a network
Super VGA (800x600) minimum required higher resolution recommended
  • Improved hardware and software compatibility
  • Fast user switching
  • New user Interface
  • Simplified Security
  • Simplified Log-on
  • Enhanced support for digital media
Generally used by consumers
Windows XP Media Centre 1.6GHz or higher 256 MB of system
  • 1.5 GB available hard disk space minimum required
  • More is recommended for installing over a network
Support for DirectX 9 graphics Windows Media Centre
  • Specialised version of XP Home if you wish to organise and display all kinds of media
  • Great for you to connect to a television to enjoy DVR functionality
Windows XP professional
  • 233MHz minimum required (single or dual processor system)
  • 300 MHz or higher recommended, Intel Pentium/Celeron Family
  • AMD k6/Athlon/Duron Family or compatible
  • 64 MB required
  • 128MB or Higher recommended
  • 1.5 GB available hard disk space minimum required
  • More is recommended for installing over a network
Super VGA (800x600) minimum required higher resolution recommended
  • Remote Desktop
  • Support for Multi processors
  • Encrypted File System
  • Domain Membership
  • Group Policy
  • Roaming Profiles
  • Automated System Recovery
  • Support for Dynamic Disks
  • Sysprep Support
Generally used by business professionals

5.1.4 Operating System Upgrades >5.1.4.1 Checking OS Compatibility

The image on this page shows a screen capture of the Windows 7 Upgrade Advisor. This utility allows you to know if there are going to be any problems with upgrading to Windows 7 operating system.

5.1.4 Operating System Upgrades >5.1.4.2 Windows OS Upgrades

The figure on this page shows the following table listing the possible operating system upgrades for Microsoft Windows.

Current OSOS can be upgraded to:
Windows 98Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista
Windows 2000Windows XP, Windows Vista
Windows XPWindows Vista
Windows VistaWindows 7

5.1.4 Operating System Upgrades >5.1.4.3 Data Migration

Image 1 on this page shows the Administrator Command Prompt displaying the User State Migration Tool.

Image 2 on this page shows a screen capture of Windows Easy Transfer.

Image 3 on this page shows the File and Settings Transfer Wizard

5.1.4 Operating System Upgrades >5.1.4.4 Lab - Data Migration in Windows 7

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.1.4 Operating System Upgrades >5.1.4.5 Lab - Data Migration In Windows Vista

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.1.4 Operating System Upgrades >5.1.4.6 Lab - Data Migration in Windows XP

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.2 Operating System Installation

5.2.1 Hard Drive Setup Procedures >5.2.1.1 Hard Drive Partitioning

The image on this page shows hard disk with the following labels identifying the structure of a hard drive:

  • Spindle
  • Actuator Shaft
  • Actuator Arm
  • Platter/disks
  • Intertrack Gap
  • Intersector Gap
  • Track
  • Cluster
  • Sector
    • Header
    • Data
    • Trailer
  • Synchronisation Information
  • Error Correcting Code (ECC)

5.2.1 Hard Drive Setup Procedures >5.2.1.2 Hard Drive Formatting

Figure 1 on this page shows the following table listing the comparison between FAT32 and NTFS.

FAT32 NTFS exFAT (FAT64)
Security Low Security Files and Folder Level Permissions Encryption exFAT can support access control lists (ACLs) that define permissions for user access
Compatibility Compatible with Windows Compatible with Windows Compatible with:
  • Windows XP with SP2 or SP3
  • Windows Vista with SP1
  • Windows 7
  • Windows Server 2003 with SP2
  • Windows Server 2008
  • Linux
File Size Limit of 4GB files, Limit of 32 GB Volumes Limit of 16 TB files, Limit of 256 TB Volumes Limit of 64 zetabytes (ZBs) files, Limit of 512 TB volumes
Files Per Volume 4.17 Million 4.29 Billion Maximum of 16 exabytes (EBs)

Image 2 on this page shows a screenshot of the Windows 7 installer creating new partitions or using existing partitions for installing the operating system.

Image 3 on this page shows a screenshot of the Windows XP installer. The user has to choose the required format for the hard disk.

5.2.1 Hard Drive Setup Procedures >5.2.1.3 Worksheet - Answer NTFS and FAT32 questions

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.2.1 Hard Drive Setup Procedures >5.2.1.4 OS Installation with Default Settings

Image 1 on this page shows the Windows 7 installer displaying the Install Now button.

Image 2 on this page shows the Windows 7 installer displaying the following two options:

  • Upgrade
  • Custom (Advanced)

Image 3 on this page shows the Windows 7 installer displaying the following network options:

  • Home Network
  • Work Network
  • Public Network

5.2.1 Hard Drive Setup Procedures >5.2.1.5 Lab - Install Windows 7

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.2.1 Hard Drive Setup Procedures >5.2.1.6 Lab - Install Windows Vista

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.2.1 Hard Drive Setup Procedures >5.2.1.7 Lab - Windows XP

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.2.1 Hard Drive Setup Procedures >5.2.1.8 Account Creation

The image on this page shows the Windows 7 installer displaying two edit boxes. One is to type the user name for the account and the second is to type a computer name.

5.2.1 Hard Drive Setup Procedures >5.2.1.9 Lab - Check for Updates in Windows 7

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.2.1 Hard Drive Setup Procedures >5.2.1.10 Lab - Check for Updates in Windows Vista

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.2.1 Hard Drive Setup Procedures >5.2.1.11 Lab - Check for Updates in Windows XP

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.2.1 Hard Drive Setup Procedures >5.2.1.12 Complete the Installation

Image 1 on this page shows the Windows 7 installer displaying the product key edit box.

Image 2 on this page shows the Windows Update Utility.

Image 3 on this page shows the Windows Device Manager.

5.2.2 Custom Installation Options >5.2.2.1 Disk Cloning

The image on this page shows the System Preparation Tool 3.14. There are two drop down menus. One is the system cleanup action where you can choose different actions and the second is the shutdown options.

5.2.2 Custom Installation Options >5.2.2.2 Other Installation Methods

The image on this page shows a screenshot of an example of an unattend.txt file.

5.2.2 Custom Installation Options >5.2.2.3 Lab - Advanced Installation of Windows 7

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.2.2 Custom Installation Options >5.2.2.4 Lab - Advanced Installation of Windows Vista

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.2.2 Custom Installation Options >5.2.2.5 Lab - Advanced Installation of Windows XP

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.2.2 Custom Installation Options >5.2.2.6 System Recovery Options

Image 1 on this page shows the Windows Create a System Repair Disc Utility.

Image 2 on this page shows the Windows Create a System Image Utility.

Image 3 on this page shows the Windows Automated System recovery Wizard.

5.2.3 Boot Sequence and Registry Files >5.2.3.1 Windows Boot Process

Figure 1 on this page shows the following table listing the Windows 7 boot sequence:

Boot Sequence for Windows 7
Power on Self Test (POST)
POST for each adapter card that has a BIOS
BIOS reads the MBR
MBR takes over control of the boot process and starts BOOTMGR
BOOTMGR reads the Boot Configuration Data file to know which OS to load and where to find the OS on the boot partition
BOOTMGR invokes WINLOAD.EXE in order to load the NTOSKRNL.EXE file and HAL.DLL
BOOTMGR reads the registry files and load device drivers
NTOSKRNL.EXE starts the WINLOGON.EXE program and displays the Windows login screen

Figure 2 on this page shows the Boot tab of the BIOS Setup Utility. The Boot Device Priority is set to:

1st Boot Device  [CD/DVD :3S-ATAPI iH]
2nd Boot Device   [SATA :3M-ST31000340]

5.2.3 Boot Sequence and Registry Files >5.2.3.2 Startup Modes

The image on this page shows the Advanced Boot Options for Windows 7 that is displayed when the F8 key is pressed during the boot process. See page notes for full description.

5.2.3 Boot Sequence and Registry Files >5.2.3.3 Windows Registry

The figure on this page shows the following table of the Windows Registry Keys:

HKEYDESCRIPTION
HKEY_CLASSES_ROOTInformation about which file extensions map to a particular application
HKEY_CURRENT_USERInformation, such as desktop settings and history, related to the current user of a PC
HKEY_USERSInformation about all users who have logged onto a system
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINEInformation relating to the hardware and software
HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIGInformation relating to all active devices on a system

5.2.3 Boot Sequence and Registry Files >5.2.3.4 Lab - Registry Backup and Recovery in Windows XP

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.2.4 Multiboot >5.2.4.1 Multiboot Procedures

Image 1 on this page shows the following output from the Windows Boot Manager listing two operating systems to choose from:

            Windows Boot Manager

Choose an operating system to start, or press TAB to select a
tool:

(Use the arrow keys to highlight your choice, then prress
ENTER.)

 Windows 7
 Windows XP

To specify an advanced option for this choice, press F8.
Seconds until the highlighted choice will be started
automatically: 29

Tools:

 Windows Memory Diagnostic

END OF OUTPUT

Image 2 on this page shows the following output of the bcdedit.exe command line tool that is used to edit general boot configuration data in Windows 7 and Vista:

C:\Users\John Doe>bcedit.exe

Windows Boot Manager
identifier{bootmgr}
devicepartition=\Device\HarddiskVolume1
descriptionWindows Boot Manager
localeen-US
inherit<globalsettings>
default<current>
resumeobject<a11177bd-a5cf-11e1-acab-950c0ec54e74>
displayorder<current>
toolsdisplayorder<memdiag>
timeout30
Windows Boot Loader
identifier<current>
deviceparttition=C:
path\Windows\system32\winload.exe
descriptionWindows 7
localeen-US
inherit<bootloadersettings>
recoverysequence<a11177bd-a5cf-11e1-acab-950c0ec54e74>
recover enabledYes
osdevicepartition=C:
systemroot\Windows
resumeobject<a11177bd-a5cf-11e1-acab-950c0ec54e74>
nxOptIn

C:\Users\John Doe>

END OF OUTPUT

5.2.4 Multiboot >5.2.4.2 Disk Management Utility

Image 1 on this page shows the Windows Disk Management Utility.

Figure 2 on this page shows the following drive status from the Windows Disk Management Utility:

VolumeLayoutTypeFile SystemStatus
(C:)SimpleBasicNTFSHealthy (Boot, Page File, Crash Dump, Primary Partition)
System ReservedSinpleBasicNTFSHealthy (System, Active, Primary Partition)

5.2.4 Multiboot >5.2.4.3 Lab - Create a Partition in Windows 7

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.2.4 Multiboot >5.2.4.4 Lab - Create a Partition in Windows Vista

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.2.4 Multiboot >5.2.4.5 Lab - Create a Partition in Windows XP

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.2.5 Directory Structure and File Attributes >5.2.5.1 Directory Structures

The image on this page shows the Windows Explorer window listing the local hard drive as drive C and the CD drive as drive D.

5.2.5 Directory Structure and File Attributes >5.2.5.2 User and System File Locations

Image 1 on this page shows the Explorer window and specifically listing the folders within a user's directory.

Image 2 on this page shows the Explorer window listing the contents of the Windows System Folder.

5.2.5 Directory Structure and File Attributes >5.2.5.3 File Extensions and Attributes

The image on this page shows the View tab of the Folder Options window and is highlighting the check box to hide extensions for known file types. When this box is checked file extensions will not be displayed in the Explorer window.

5.2.5 Directory Structure and File Attributes >5.2.5.4 Application, File, and Folder Properties

Image 1 on this page shows the Application Properties window where many properties for an application can be viewed or modified from the following tabs:

  • General
  • Shortcut
  • Compatibility
  • Security
  • Details
  • Previous Versions

Image 2 on this page shows the Folder Properties window where many folder properties can be viewed or modified from the following tabs:

  • General
  • Sharing
  • Security
  • Previous Versions
  • Customize

5.3 The Windows GUI and Control Panel

5.3.1 Windows Desktop, Tool, and Applications >5.3.1.1 Windows Desktop

Image 1 on this page shows the Windows 7 desktop displaying the following 3 gadgets:

  • Calendar
  • Weather
  • Clock

Image 2 on this page shows the Windows Vista desktop displaying the the sidebar.

5.3.1 Windows Desktop, Tool, and Applications >5.3.1.2 Desktop Properties

Image 1 on this page shows the Personalization window in Windows 7. Here you can change desktop icons, mouse pointers, desktop themes, desktop background, colour, sound, and screen saver.

Image 2 on this page shows the Personalization window in Windows Vista.

Image 3 on this page shows the Display Properties window in Windows XP.

5.3.1 Windows Desktop, Tool, and Applications >5.3.1.3 Start Menu and Taskbar

Image 1 on this page shows the Windows 7 Start Menu which is described in the page notes.

Image 2 on this page shows the Customise Start Menu window which allows the user to choose how applications are displayed either as a link or as a menu item or not to display the item at all.

5.3.1 Windows Desktop, Tool, and Applications >5.3.1.4 Task Manager

The image on this page shows the Windows Task Manager window which is explained in the page notes.

5.3.1 Windows Desktop, Tool, and Applications >5.3.1.5 Lab - Task Manager (Managing Processes) Windows 7

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.3.1 Windows Desktop, Tool, and Applications >5.3.1.6 Lab - Task Manager (Managing Processes) Windows Vista

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.3.1 Windows Desktop, Tool, and Applications >5.3.1.7 Lab - Task Manager (Managing Processes) Windows XP

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.3.1 Windows Desktop, Tool, and Applications >5.3.1.8 Computer and Windows Explorer

The image on this page shows the Windows 7 Explorer window listing all the hard disks and removable devices that are plugged into the Windows 7 operating system.

5.3.1 Windows Desktop, Tool, and Applications >5.3.1.9 Windows 7 Libraries

The image on this page shows the Windows 7 Libraries with the following four different folders:

  • Documents
  • Music
  • Pictures
  • Videos

5.3.1 Windows Desktop, Tool, and Applications >5.3.1.10 Install and Uninstall Applications

The image on this page shows the Programs and Features utility listing all the programs installed on the computer. This utility allows the user to uninstall programs.

5.3.1 Windows Desktop, Tool, and Applications >5.3.1.11 Lab - Install Third-Party Software in Windows 7

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.3.1 Windows Desktop, Tool, and Applications >5.3.1.12 Lab - Install Third-Party Software in Windows Vista

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5.3.1 Windows Desktop, Tool, and Applications >5.3.1.13 Lab - Install Third-Party Software in Windows XP

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5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.1 Introduction to Control Panel Utilities

Image 1 on this page shows the Control Panel in category view. See page notes for detailed description.

Image 2 on this page shows the Control Panel in large icon view.

5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.2 User Accounts

Image 1 on this page shows the User Accounts utility. Here there are options to:

  • Create password for your account
  • Change your picture
  • Change your account name
  • Change your account type
  • Manage another account
  • Change User Account Control settings

Image 2 on this page shows the User Account Control settings window where you can choose when to be notified about changes to your computer.

5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.3 Lab - Create User Accounts in Windows 7

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.4 Lab - Create User Accounts in Windows Vista

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.5 Lab - Create User Accounts in Windows XP

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.6 Internet Options

The image on this page shows the Internet Properties Utility. See page notes for detailed description.

5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.7 Lab - Configure Browser Settings in Windows 7

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.8 Lab - Configure Browser Settings in Windows Vista

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5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.9 Lab - Configure Browser Settings in Windows XP

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.10 Display Settings

The image on this page shows the Screen Resolution window of the Windows 7 Display utility. The user can change various settings regarding the computer monitor such as display and screen resolution.

5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.11 Folder Options

The image on this page shows the Folder Options window. See page notes for detailed description.

5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.12 Action Center

The image on this page shows the Action Center window. See page notes for detailed description.

5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.13 Windows Firewall

The image on this page shows the Windows Firewall utility. This displays important information such as the status of the Windows firewall, actions to take in relation to all incoming connections to the computer and depending on the type of network the user is running such as home, business or public, the firewall will adapt itself and can notify the user when windows firewall has blocked a new program.

5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.14 Power Options

The image on this page shows the Windows 7 Power Options utility. This allows the user to choose different power plans such as balanced to full performance, power saver and also change various settings regarding how the computer will deal with external devices and the computer monitor.

5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.15 System Utility

Image 1 on this page shows the Windows 7 System utility. This displays information about the system such as:

  • Processor
  • Installed memory (RAM)
  • System type
  • Pen and touch
  • Computer name
  • Full computer name
  • Computer description
  • Windows activation

Image 2 on this page shows the Windows 7 System Properties window. See page notes for detailed description.

The image also shows the Performance Options window which is accessed from the Advanced tab in System Properties.

5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.16 Lab - Managing Virtual Memory Windows 7

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.17 Lab - Managing Virtual Memory Windows Vista

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.18 Lab - Managing Virtual Memory Windows XP

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5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.19 Device Manager

Figure 1 on this page is an image showing the Device Manager utility. See page notes for detailed description.

Figure 2 on this page shows the following table listing the following different device manager icons:

Device manager IconExplanation
Yellow filled circle with a black explanation markThe device has an error. A problem code is displayed to explain the problem.
White filled square box with a red letter xThe device is disabled. The device is installed in the computer, but no driver is loaded for it.
White filled circle with a blue letter iThe device was manually selected. The use Automatic Settings option is not selected for the device.
White filled square box with a green question markA device-specific driver is not available. A compatible driver has been installed.

5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.20 Lab - Managing Device Drivers with Device Manager in Windows 7

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5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.21 Lab - Managing Device Drivers with Device Manager in Windows Vista

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5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.22 Lab - Managing Device Drivers with Device Manager in Windows XP

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5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.23 Regional and Language Options

The image on this page shows the Windows 7 Region and Language utility with the following tabs:

  • Formats
  • Location
  • Keyboards and Languages
  • Administrative

5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.24 Lab - Regional and Language Options Windows 7

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.25 Lab - Regional and Language Options Windows Vista

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5.3.2 Control Panel Utilities >5.3.2.26 Lab - Regional and Language Options Windows XP

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5.3.3 Administrative Tools >5.3.3.1 Computer Management

The image on this page shows the Windows 7 Computer Management utility where the user can access the following information:

  • Task Scheduler
  • Event Viewer
  • Shared Folders
  • Local Users and Groups
  • Performance
  • Device Manager
  • Disk Management
  • Services and Applications

5.3.3 Administrative Tools >5.3.3.2 Event Viewer, Component Services, and Data Sources

The image on this page shows the Windows 7 Event Viewer utility. See page notes for detailed description.

5.3.3 Administrative Tools >5.3.3.3 Services

The image on this page shows the Services console listing all the services that the computer can execute to achieve specific goals or to use specific programs on the computer.

5.3.3 Administrative Tools >5.3.3.4 Performance and Windows Memory Diagnostic

The image on this page shows the Windows 7 Performance Monitor. See page notes for detailed description.

5.3.3 Administrative Tools >5.3.3.5 Lab - Monitor and Manage System Resources in Windows 7

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5.3.3 Administrative Tools >5.3.3.6 Lab - Monitor and Manage System Resources in Windows Vista

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5.3.3 Administrative Tools >5.3.3.7 Lab - Monitor and Manage System Resources in Windows XP

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5.3.4 System Tools >5.3.4.1 Disk Defragmenter and Disk Error-Checking Tool

Image 1 on this page shows the Disk defragmenter utility.

Image 2 on this page shows the Windows Device Manager utility which shows all of the computer devices and hardware connected to the motherboard. It also shows issues that the computer is having with computer hardware.

5.3.4 System Tools >5.3.4.2 Lab - Hard Drive Maintenance in Windows 7

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5.3.4 System Tools >5.3.4.3 Lab - Hard Drive Maintenance in Windows Vista

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5.3.4 System Tools >5.3.4.4 Lab - Hard Drive Maintenance in Windows XP

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5.3.4 System Tools >5.3.4.5 System Information

The image on this page shows the Windows 7 System Information utility. See page notes for detailed description.

5.3.4 System Tools >5.3.4.6 Lab - Managing System Files with Built-in Utilities in Windows 7

5.3.4 System Tools >5.3.4.7: Lab - Managing System Files with Built-in Utilities in Windows Vista

5.3.4 System Tools >5.3.4.8: Lab - Managing System Files with Built-in Utilities in Windows XP

5.3.5 Accessories >5.3.5.1 Remote Desktop

Image 1 on this page shows the Windows 7 Remote Desktop utility.

Image 2 on this page shows the Windows 7 Windows Remote Assistance utility.

5.3.5 Accessories >5.3.5.2: Lab - Remote Desktop and Remote Assistance in Windows 7

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5.3.5 Accessories >5.3.5.3: Lab - Remote Desktop and Remote Assistance in Windows Vista

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5.3.5 Accessories >5.3.5.4: Lab - Remote Desktop and Remote Assistance in Windows XP

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5.3.6 Control Panel Utilities Unique to Specific Windows versions >5.3.6.1 Windows 7 Unique Utilities

Image 1 on this page shows the Windows 7 Home Group utility. See page notes for detailed description.

Image 2 on this page shows the Windows 7 RemoteApp and Desktop Connections utility. See page notes for detailed description.

Image 3 on this page shows the Windows 7 Troubleshooting utility. See page notes for detailed description.

5.3.6 Control Panel Utilities Unique to Specific Windows versions >5.3.6.2 Windows Vista Unique Utilities

Image 1 on this page shows the Windows Vista Tablet PC Settings utility. See page notes for detailed description.

Image 2 on this page shows the Windows Vista Pen and Input Devices utility. See page notes for detailed description.

Image 3 on this page shows the Windows Vista Offline Files utility. See page notes for detailed description.

Image 4 on this page shows the Windows Vista Problem Reports and Solutions utility. See page notes for detailed description.

Image 5 on this page shows the Windows Vista Printer utility. See page notes for detailed description.

5.3.6 Control Panel Utilities Unique to Specific Windows versions >5.3.6.3 Windows XP Unique Utilities

Image 1 on this page shows the Windows XP Add and Remove Programs utility. See page notes for detailed description.

Image 2 on this page shows the Windows XP Printers and Faxes utility. See page notes for detailed description.

Image 3 on this page shows the Windows XP Automatic Update utility. See page notes for detailed description.

Image 4 on this page shows the Windows XP Network Connections utility. See page notes for detailed description.

Image 5 on this page shows the Windows XP Network Setup Wizard utility. See page notes for detailed description.

5.3.7 Command-Line Tools >5.3.7.1

The figure on this page shows the following table listing the common command line interface (CLI) commands:

Command Command Function
Help [command-name] Provides specific information for any CLI command. Alternatively, you can use [command-name]/?
Taskkill Stops a running application
Bootrec Repairs the MBR
Shutdown Shuts down a local or remote machine
Tasklist Displays currently running applications
MD Creates a new directory
RD Removes a directory
CD Changes to a different directory
DEL Deletes a file
FDISK Partitions disks in windows XP
FORMAT Formats a Drive, Mount point or volume with a file system
COPY Copies files from one location to another
XCOPY
  • Copies files, directories, or entire drives from one location to another
  • Copies a directory and its contents from one location to another unless the directory is empty
  • Copies only files with the archive attribute set
  • Copies and verifies that each new file is the same as the source file
  • Copies without prompting to overwrite existing files
ROBOCOPY Copies a file
DISKPART Provides disk management functionality
SFC Check and replaces all of the protected system files with known good versions if they have become corrupted or deleted
CHKDSK Creates a report about the disk, Fixes any file allocation table entries, Attempts to recover data from bad sectors of the drive

5.3.7 Command-Line Tools >5.3.7.2: Lab - Working with CLI Commands in Windows

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5.3.7 Command-Line Tools >5.3.7.3 Run Line Utility

Image 1 on this page shows the Windows Run Line utility. See page notes for detailed description.

Omage 2 on this page shows the Windows Command Line Interface.

Image 3 on this page shows the Windows DirectX Diagnostic tool also called DxDiag, which lists detailed information about the DirectX components and drivers installed on the computer. The information is organised into the following four tabs:

  • System
  • Display
  • Sound
  • Input

Image 4 on this page shows the Microsoft Management Console (MMC), where the user can add any of the administration tools from performance counters, hard disk management tool, services and other tools.

Image 5 on this page shows the Windows System Configuration utility (MSCONFIG). See page notes for detailed description.

Image 6 on this page shows the Wiondows System Information utility (Msinfo32). See page notes for detailed description.

Image 7 on this page shows the Notepad utility, the basic Windows word editor.

Image 8 on this page shows the Windows Registry Editor which allows the user to edit the windows registry in any way that the user wants. The registry is sorted into the following five categories:

  • HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT
  • HKEY_CURRENT_USER
  • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
  • HKEY_USERS
  • HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG.

5.3.7 Command-Line Tools >5.3.7.4: Lab - Run Line Utilities in Windows 7

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5.3.7 Command-Line Tools >5.3.7.5: Lab - Run Line Utilities in Windows Vista

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5.3.7 Command-Line Tools >5.3.7.6: Lab - Run Line Utilities in Windows XP

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5.4 Client-Side Virtualisation

5.4.1 Purpose and Requirements of Virtualisation >5.4.1.1 Purpose of Virtual Machines

The image on this page shows the Windows Virtual PC Console which lists the various virtual machines and also allows the user to create new virtual machines.

5.4.1 Purpose and Requirements of Virtualisation >5.4.1.2 Hypervisor: Virtual Machine Manager

The image on this page shows Windows XP mode on Windows 7. See page notes for detailed description.

5.4.1 Purpose and Requirements of Virtualisation >5.4.1.3

The figure on this page shows the following table of Windows Virtual PC System Requirements:

Processor
  • 1GHz
  • 32-bit/64-bit Processor
Hard disk Space 15 GB per Virtual OS
Memory 2GB
Supported Host operating systems
  • Windows 7 Home Basic
  • Windows 7 Home Premium
  • Windows 7 Enterprise
  • Windows 7 Professional
  • Windows 7 Ultimate
Supported Guest Operating Systems
  • Windows XP
  • Windows Vista
  • Windows 7

5.4.1 Purpose and Requirements of Virtualisation >5.4.1.4: Lab - Install Virtual PC

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5.5 Common Preventive Maintenance Techniques for Operating Systems

5.5.1 OS Preventive Maintenance Plan >5.5.1.1 Preventive Maintenance Plan Contents

The image on this page shows a PC with a schedule and a variety of cleaning products and tools.

5.5.1 OS Preventive Maintenance Plan >5.5.1.2: Lab - Managing the Startup Folder in Windows 7

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5.5.1 OS Preventive Maintenance Plan >5.5.1.3: Lab - Managing the Startup Folder in Windows Vista

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5.5.1 OS Preventive Maintenance Plan >5.5.1.4: Lab - Managing the Startup Folder in Windows XP

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5.5.1 OS Preventive Maintenance Plan >5.5.1.5 Updates

The image on this page shows the Windows 7 Update utility telling the user that there are three important updates and 2 optional updates available. The 3 important updates have been selected to be installed.

5.5.1 OS Preventive Maintenance Plan >5.5.1.6 Scheduling Tasks

The image on this page shows the Windows Task Scheduler. See page notes for detailed description.

5.5.1 OS Preventive Maintenance Plan >5.5.1.7: Lab - Schedule a Task Using the GUI and the at Command in Windows 7

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5.5.1 OS Preventive Maintenance Plan >5.5.1.8: Lab - Schedule a Task Using the GUI and the at Command in Windows 7

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5.5.1 OS Preventive Maintenance Plan >5.5.1.9: Lab - Schedule a Task Using the GUI and the at Command in Windows 7

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5.5.1 OS Preventive Maintenance Plan >5.5.1.10 Restore Points

The image on this page shows the Windows System Restore tool displaying a message that when using system restore it does not affect any of documents, pictures, or other personal data.

5.5.1 OS Preventive Maintenance Plan >5.5.1.11: Lab - Use the System Restore Tool in Windows 7

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5.5.1 OS Preventive Maintenance Plan >5.5.1.12: Lab - Use the System Restore Tool in Windows Vista

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5.5.1 OS Preventive Maintenance Plan >5.5.1.13: Lab - Use the System Restore Tool in Windows XP

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5.5.1 OS Preventive Maintenance Plan >5.5.1.14 Hard Drive Backup

The image on this page shows the Windows Backup Utility. See page notes for detailed description.

5.6 Basic Troubleshooting Process for Operating Systems

5.6.1 Applying the Troubleshooting Process to Operating Systems >5.6.1.1 Identify the Problem

The figure on this page shows the following table listing open-ended and closed-ended questions:

Step 1: Identify the Problem
Open-Ended Questions
  • What problems are you having?
  • What operating system is installed on the computer?
  • What updates have you performed lately?
  • What programs have you installed recently?
  • What were you doing when the problem was discovered?
Closed-Ended Questions
  • Can you boot the operating system?
  • Can you boot up in safe mode?
  • Have you changed your password recently?
  • Have you seen any error messages on the computer?
  • Has anyone else used the computer recently?
  • Has any hardware been added recently?

5.6.1 Applying the Troubleshooting Process to Operating Systems >5.6.1.2 Establish a Theory of Probable Cause

The figure on this page shows the following table listing common causes of OS problems:

Step 2: Establish a Theory of Probable Cause
Common Causes of Operating Systems Problems
  • Incorrect settings in the BIOS
  • Caps lock key is set to on
  • Non-bootable media in the floppy drive during computer boot up
  • Password has changed
  • Incorrect monitor settings in control panel
  • Operating system update failure
  • Driver update failure
  • Malware infection
  • Hard drive failure
  • Corrupt operating system files

5.6.1 Applying the Troubleshooting Process to Operating Systems >5.6.1.3 Test the Theory to Determine Cause

The figure on this page shows the following table listing common steps to determine cause:

Step 3: Test the Theory to Determine Cause
Common steps to determine cause
  • Log in as a different user
  • Use third party diagnostic software
  • Determine if new software or software updates have just been installed
  • Uninstall recently installed applications
  • Boot into safe mode to determine if the problem is driver-related
  • Roll back newly updated drivers
  • Examine device manager for device conflicts
  • Examine event logs for warnings or errors
  • Check the hard drive for errors and fix file system issues
  • Use the system file checker to recover corrupt system files
  • Use system restore if a system update or service pack has been installed

5.6.1 Applying the Troubleshooting Process to Operating Systems >5.6.1.4 Establish a Plan of Action to Resolve the Problem and Implement the Solution

The figure on this page shows the following table listing further actions to resolve the problem:.

Step 4: Establish a Plan of Action to Resolve the Problem and Implement the Solution
If no solution is achieved in the previous step, further research is needed to implement the solution
  • Helpdesk repair Logs
  • Other technician
  • Manufacture FAQS
  • Technical Websites
  • News Groups
  • Computer Manuals
  • Device Manuals
  • Online Forums
  • Internet Search

5.6.1 Applying the Troubleshooting Process to Operating Systems >5.6.1.5 Verify Full System Functionality and Implement Preventive Measures

The figure on this page shows the following table listing the steps to verify full system functionality and if applicable Implement Preventive measures:

Step 5: Verify Full System Functionality and if Applicable Implement Preventive Measures
Verify full functionality
  • Shut down the computer and restart it
  • Check event logs to make sure there are no new warnings or errors
  • Check device Manager to see that there are no warnings or errors
  • Run DxDiag to make sure DirectX running correctly
  • Make sure applications run properly
  • Make sure networks shares are accessible
  • Make sure the internet can be accessed
  • Re-Run system file checker to ensure all files are correct
  • Check Task Manager to ensure that the status of all programs is Running
  • Re-run any third party diagnostic tools

5.6.1 Applying the Troubleshooting Process to Operating Systems >5.6.1.6 Document Findings, Actions, and Outcomes

The figure on this page shows the following table listing the steps to document the troubleshooting process:

Step 6: Document Findings, Actions, and Outcomes
Document your findings, actions and outcomes
  • Discuss the solution implemented with the customer
  • Have the customer verify that the problem has been solved
  • Provides the customer with all paperwork
  • Document the steps taken to solve the problem in the work order and the technician’s journal
  • Document any components used in the repair
  • Document the time spent to resolve the problem

5.6.2 Common Problems and Solutions for Operating Systems >5.6.2.1

The figure on this page shows the following table of Common problems and Solutions:

Common Problems and Solutions
Identify the Problem Probable Causes Possible Solutions
The OS locks up
  • The Computer is overheating
  • Some of the operating system files may be corrupted
  • The power supply, RAM, Hard drive, or motherboard may be defective
  • The BIOS settings may be incorrect
  • An unknown event has occurred that has caused the OS to Lock up
  • An incorrect driver has been installed
  • Clean internal components
  • Check the fan connections to ensure fans are operating properly
  • Run the system file checker (SFC) to replace corrupt operating system files
  • Test the power supply, RAM, Hard drive, or motherboard with third party diagnostic software and replace as necessary
  • Address any events in the event log
  • Examine and adjust the BIOS settings
  • Install or roll back updated drivers
The keyboard or mouse does not respond
  • Communications between the keyboard or mouse and the computer has failed
  • The computer has an incompatible or an out of date driver
  • The cable has been damaged
  • The device is defective
  • A KVM switch is being used and the active computer is not being displayed
  • Reboot the computer
  • Install or roll back drivers
  • Replace the device
  • Change the input on the KVM switch
The operating system will not start
  • A hardware device failed to initialize
  • There is a non-bootable disk in the boot drive
  • Some of the operating system files may be corrupted
  • The master Boot Record is corrupted
  • The power supply, RAM, hard drive, or motherboard may be defective
  • New hardware drivers did not install properly
  • Windows updates have corrupted the operating system
  • Reboot the computer
  • Remove all non-bootable media form the drives
  • Restore Windows using the System restore tool
  • Recover the system disk using the System image Recovery tool
  • Perform a Repair Installation on the operating system
  • Use the recovery Console to fix the Master Boot Record
  • Replace the power supply, RAM, hard drive, or motherboard with one that works
  • Disconnect any newly connected devices and use the last known Good Configuration option to start the operating system
  • Boot the computer in Safe Mode and address all events in the event log
The computer displays an “invalid Boot Disk” error after the POST
  • Media that does not have an operating system is in a drive
  • The boot order is not set correctly in BIOS
  • The hard drive is not detected or the jumpers are not set correctly
  • The hard drive does not have an operating system installed
  • The MBR is corrupted
  • The computer has a boot sector virus
  • The hard drive failing
  • Remove all media from the drivers
  • Change the boot order in BIOS to start with the boot drive
  • Reconnect the hard drive cables or reset the hard drive jumpers
  • Install an operating system
  • Run fdisk /mbr from the CLI in windows XP only
  • Run virus removal software
  • Replace the Hard drive
The computer displays an “Inaccessible Boot Device” error after the POST
  • Recently installed device driver is incompatible with the boot controller
  • BOOTMGR is corrupted in Windows 7 or windows Vista
  • NTLDR is corrupted in windows XP
  • Use last known good configuration to boot the computer
  • Boot the computer in safe mode and load a restore point from before the installation of new hardware
  • Restore the BOOTMGR file from Windows 7 or windows vista installation media
  • Restore the NTLDR from windows XP installation media
The computer displays a “BOOTMGR is missing” error after the POST in Windows 7 and Windows Vista
  • BOOTMGR is missing or damaged
  • Boot Configuration Data is missing or damaged
  • The boot order is not set correctly in BIOS
  • The MBR is corrupted
  • The hard drive is failing
  • The hard drive jumpers are not set correctly
  • Restore BOOTMGR from installation media
  • Restore the Boot Configuration Data from installation media
  • Change the boot order in BIOS to start with the boot drive
  • Run chkdsk /F /R from the recovery console
The computer displays a “Missing NTLDR” error after the POST in windows XP
  • NTLDR is missing or damaged
  • Ntdetect.com is missing or damaged
  • Boot.ini is missing or damaged
  • The boot order is not set correctly in BIOS
  • The MBR is corrupted
  • The hard drive is failing
  • The hard drive jumpers are not set correctly
  • Restore NTLDR from installation media
  • Restore ntdetect.com from installation media
  • Restore boot.ini from installation media
  • Change the boot order in BIOS to start with the boot drive
  • Run fdisk /mbr from the cmd line prompt
  • Run chkdsk /F /R from the recovery console
  • Reset the hard drive jumpers
A service failed to start when the computer booted
  • The service is not enabled
  • The service is set to manual
  • The failed service requires another service to be enabled
  • Enable the service
  • Set the service to Automatic
  • Re-enable or re-install the required service
A device did not start when the computer booted
  • The external device is not powered on
  • The data cable or power cable is not connected to the device
  • The device has been disabled in BIOS
  • The device has failed
  • The device has a conflict with a new installed device
  • The driver is corrupted
  • Power on the external device
  • Secure the data cable and power cable to the device
  • Enable the device in the BIOS
  • Replace the device
  • Remove the newly installed device
  • Re-install or roll back the driver
A program listed in the registry is not found
  • One or more program files have been deleted
  • The uninstall program did not work correctly
  • The installation directory has been removed
  • The hard drive has become corrupted
  • The computer has a virus
  • Re-install the program
  • Re-install the program and run the un-install program again
  • Run chkdsk /F /R to fix the hard drive file entries
  • Scan for and remove the virus
The computer continually restarts without displaying the desktop
  • The computer is set to restart when there is a failure
  • A start-up file has become corruptted
  • Press F8 to open the advanced Options Menu and choose Disable automatic restart on system failure
  • Run chkdsk /F /R from the recovery console
The computer displays a black or blue screen of death (BSOD)
  • A driver is not compatible with the hardware
  • The RAM is failing
  • The power supply is failing
  • The CPU is failing
  • The motherboard is failing
  • Research the STOP error and the name of the module that produced the error
  • Replace any failing devices with known good devices
The computer locks up without any error messages
  • The CPU or FSB settings are incorrect on the motherboard or in the BIOS
  • The computer is overheating
  • An update has corrupted the operating system
  • The RAM is failing
  • The hard drive is failing
  • The power supply is failing
  • Check and reset the CPU and FSB settings
  • Check and replace any cooling devices as necessary
  • Uninstall the software update or perform a system restore
  • Run chkdsk /F /R from the recovery console
  • Replace any failing devices with known good devices
An application does not install
  • The downloaded application installer contains a virus and has been prevented from installing by virus protection software
  • The installation disk or file is corrupted
  • The install application is not compatible with the operating system
  • There are too many programs running and not enough memory remaining to install the application
  • The hardware does not meet the minimum requirements
  • Obtain a new installation disk or delete the file and download the installation file again
  • Run the installation application under compatibility mode
  • Close applications before installing a new program
  • Install hardware that meets minimum installation requirements
A computer with windows 7 installed does not run Aero
  • The computer does not meet the minimum hardware requirements for running Aero
  • Upgrade the processor, RAM, and video card to meet minimum Microsoft requirements for running Aero
The search feature takes a long time to find results
  • The index service is not running
  • The index service is not indexing in the correct locations
  • Start the index service using service.msc
  • Change the settings of the index service in the advanced options panel
The UAC no longer prompts the user for permission
  • The UAC has been turned off
  • Turn on the UAC in the user account applet in the control panel
No gadgets appear on the desktop
  • The gadgets have never been installed or have been uninstalled
  • The XML necessary to render the gadget is broken, corrupted, or not installed
  • Right click on the desktop > Gadgets > right click on a gadget > add
  • Register the file msxml3.dll by entering regsvr32 msxml3.dll > enter the command prompt
The computer is running slowly and has a delayed response
  • A process is using most of the CPU resources
  • Restart the process with services.msc
  • If the process is not needed, end the process with task manager
  • Restart the computer
The computer does not recognise an external drive
  • The OS does not have the correct drivers for the external drive
  • Download the correct drivers for the drive
The new sound card does not work
  • The volume has been muted
  • Unmute the volume with the sound control panel utility
Some external devices from a 32-bit computer do not work on a 64-bit computer
  • Incorrect device drivers installed
  • Update the device drivers to 64-bit drivers
After upgrading to Windows 7, the computer runs very slowly
  • Aero is causing the computer to run slowly
  • Turn off Aero in Windows 7

5.7 Operating Systems

5.7.1 Summary >5.7.1.1 Summary

The image on this page shows the following different Windows operating systems:

  • Windows XP Home edition
  • Windows Vista Business
  • Windows 7 Ultimate

End of Chapter 5: Operating Systems.

Next - Chapter 6: Networks.

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Page last modified on March 26, 2015, at 01:51 AM