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Chapter 1 - Introduction to the Personal Computer

1.0 Introduction to the Personal Computer System

1.0.1 Introduction >1.0.1.1 Introduction

The image on this page shows a a computer tower, monitor, keyboard and mouse.

1.1 Personal Computer Systems

1.1.1 Cases and Power Supplies >1.1.1.1 Cases

Figure 1 on this page shows three images. of different computer cases. They are:

  • Desktop
  • Mini atx
  • Midi atx

Figure 2 on this page is an interactive activity that displays the following factors that should be considered when selecting a computer case. When each factor is selected the relevant rationale is displayed:

FactorRationale
Model TypeThere are two main case models. One type is for desktop PCs, and the other type is for tower computers. The type of motherboard you choose determines the type of case that can be used. The size and shape must match exactly.
Sizef a computer has many components, it will need more room for airflow to keep the system cool.
Available SpaceDesktop cases allow space conservation in tight areas because the monitor can be placed on top of the unit. The design of the desktop case may limit the number and size of the components that can be added.
Power supplyYou must match the power rating and connection type of the power supply to the type of motherboard you have chosen.
AppearanceFor some people, how the case looks doesn't matter at all. For others, it is critical. There are many case designs to choose from if it is necessary to have a case that is attractive.
Status DisplayWhat is going on inside the case can be very important. LED indicators that are mounted on the outside of the case can tell you if the system is receiving power, when the hard drive is being used, and when the computer is in sleep or hibernate mode.
VentsAll cases have a vent on the power supply, and some have another vent on the back to help draw air into or out of the system. Some cases are designed with more vents in the event that the system needs a way to dissipate an unusual amount of heat. This situation may occur when many devices are installed close together in the case.

1.1.1 Cases and Power Supplies >1.1.1.2 Power Supplies

Figure 1 on this page shows a standard computer power supply by itself with the Molex, Berg and SATA connections.

Figure 2 on this page is a table that lists the voltages for each connector found on the power supply.

VoltageWire ColourUsePower Supply Form
+12VYellowDisk drive, motors, fans, cooling devices, and the system bus slotsAT, ATX, ATX12V
-12VBlueSome type of serial port circuits and early programmable read-only memory (PROM)AT, ATX, ATX12V
+3.3VOrangeMost newer CPUs, some type of system memory, and AGP video cardsATX, ATX12V
+5VRedMotherboard, Baby AT, earlier CPUs and motherboard componentsAT, ATX, ATX12V
-5VWhiteISA bus cards and early PROMSAT, ATX, ATX12V
0VBlackGround - Used to complete circuits with other voltagesAT, ATX, ATX12V

1.1.1 Cases and Power Supplies >1.1.1.3 Electricity and Ohm's Law

Figure 1 on this page shows Ohm's triangle. Inside the triangle is the expression V (voltage) divided by (I (Current) multiplied by R (Resistance))

Figure 2 shows Ohm's law chart, a formula wheel, consisting of a smaller inner circle and a larger outer circle, divided into 4 quadrents that can be used to calculate any of the four basic units of electricity using any two known units. Each quadrant of the outer circle is subdivided into thirds.

The inner circle displays the following:

QuadrantBasic UnitSymbolUnit of Measurement
Top leftPowerPWatts
Top rightCurrentIAmps
Bottom leftVoltageVVolts
Bottom rightResistanceROhms

The outer circle displays the following expressions:

Basic Unit
from Inner Circle
QuadrantThirdExpression
PowerTop leftTopV multiplied by I
PowerTop leftMiddleV squared divided by R
PowerTop leftBottomI squared multiplied by R
CurrentTop rightTopV divided by R
CurrentTop rightMiddleP divided by V
CurrentTop rightBottomSquare root of P divided by R
VoltageBottom leftTopI multiplied by R
VoltageBottom leftMiddleSquare root of (P multiplied by R)
VoltageBottom leftBottomP divided by I
ResistanceBottom rightTopV squared divided by P
ResistanceBottom rightMiddleV divided by I
ResistanceBottom rightBottomP divided by i squared

Figure 3 on this page is an image showing capacitors on a power supply.

1.1.1 Cases and Power Supplies >1.1.1.4 Worksheet - Ohm's Law

This is a pdf document.

1.1.2 Internal PC Components >1.1.2.1 Motherboards

Figure 1 on this page is an image showing four different motherboard form factors.

iFgure 2 on this page is a table displaying the following motherboard form factors.

NameName
(Expanded)
LengthWidth
ATAdvanced Technology12 in (30.5 cm)13.8 in (35.1 cm)
ATXAdvanced Technology Extended12 in (30.5 cm)9.6 in (24.4 cm)
Mini-ATXSmaller footprint of Advanced Technology Extended5.9 in (15 cm)5.9 in (15 cm)
Micro-ATXSmaller footprint of Advanced Technology Extended9.6 in (24.4 cm)9.6 in (24.4 cm)
LPXLow-Profile Extended13 in (33 cm)9 in (22.9 cm)
NLXNew Low Profile Extended8 in (20.3 cm) to 9 in (22.9 cm)10 in (25.4 cm) to 13.6 in (34.5 cm)
BTXBalanced Technology Extended12.8 in (32.5 cm)10.5 in (26.6 cm)
Mini-ITXSmaller than the Micro-ATX6.7 in (17 cm)6.7 in (17 cm)
Nano-ITXSmaller footprint of the Mini-ITX4.7 in (12 cm)4.7 in (12 cm)
Pico-ITXHalf the size of the Nano-ITX3.9 in (9.9 cm)2.8 in (7.1 cm)
Mobile-ITXSmallest ITX motherboards2.4 in (6 cm)2.4 in (6 cm)

1.1.2 Internal PC Components >1.1.2.2 CPUs

Image 1 on this page shows a pin grid array (PGA) central processing unit and the motherboard socket that it fits into.

Image 2 on this page shows a land grid array (LGA) central processing unit and the motherboard socket that it fits into.

Image 3 on this page shows a slot style central processing unit.

Image 4 on this page shows a motherboard with a CPU slot.

1.1.2 Internal PC Components >1.1.2.3 Coding Systems

Image 1 on this page shows the side cut-away view of a tower case with an enlarged view of the case fan.

Image 2 on this page shows a motherboard with an enlarged view of the CPU fan.

Image 3 on this page shows a graphics expansion card that has two embedded fans.

1.1.2 Internal PC Components >1.1.2.4 ROM

The figure on this page is an interactive activity that allows the learner to understand the difference between the following types of ROM chips.

NameFull NameDescription
ROMRead-Only Memory chips.Information is written to a ROM chip when it is manufactured. A ROM chip cannot be erased or re-written and is obsolete.
PROMProgrammable Read-Only MemoryInformation is written to a PROM chip after it is manufactured. A PROM chip cannot be erased or re-written.
EPROMErasable Programmable Read-Only MemoryInformation is written to an EPROM chip after it is manufactured. An EPROM chip can be erased with exposure to UV light. Special equipment is required.
EEPROMElectrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only MemoryInformation is written to an EEPROM chip after it is manufactured. EEPROM chips are also called Flash ROMs. An EEPROM chip can be erased and re-written without having to remove the chip from the computer.

1.1.2 Internal PC Components >1.1.2.5 RAM

The figure on this page is an interactive activity that allows the learner to understand the difference between the following types of RAM.

NameDescription
DRAMDynamic RAM is a memory chip which is used as main memory. DRAM must be constantly refreshed with pulses of electricity in order to maintain the data stored within the chip.
SRAMStatic RAM is a memory chip that is used as cache memory. SRAM is much faster than DRAM and does not have to be refreshed as often. SRAM is much more expensive than DRAM.
FPM MemoryFast Page Mode DRAM is memory that supports paging. Paging enables faster access to the data than regular DRAM. FPM memory was used in Intel 486 and Pentium systems.
EDO MemoryExtended Data Out RAM is memory that overlaps consecutive data accesses. This speeds up the access time to retrieve data from memory, because the CPU does not have to wait for one data access cycle to end before another data access cycle begins.
SDRAMSynchronous DRAM is DRAM that operates in synchronization with the memory bus. The memory bus is the data path between the CPU and the main memory. Control signals are used to coordinate the exchange of data between SDRAM and the CPU.
DDR SDRAMDouble Data Rate SDRAM is memory that transfers data twice as fast as SDRAM. DDR SDRAM increases performance by transferring data twice per clock cycle.
DDR2 SDRAMDouble Data Rate 2 SDRAM is faster than DDR SDRAM memory. DDR2 SDRAM improves performance over DDR SDRAM by decreasing noise and crosstalk between the signal wires.
DDR3 SDRAMDouble Data Rate 3 SDRAM expands memory bandwidth by doubling the clock rate of DDR2 SDRAM. DDR3 SDRAM consumes less power and generates less heat than DDR2 SDRAM.
RDRAMRAMBus DRAM is a memory chip that was developed to communicate at very high rates of speed. RDRAM chips are not commonly used.

1.1.2 Internal PC Components >1.1.2.6 Memory Modules

Figure 1 on this page is an interactive activity that allows the learner to understand the difference between the following types of memory modules.

NameDescription
DIPDual Inline Package is an individual memory chip. A DIP has dual rows of pins used to attach it to the motherboard.
SIMMSingle Inline Memory Module is a small circuit board which holds several memory chips. SIMMs have 30-pin or 72-pin configurations.
DIMM MemoryDual Inline Memory Module is a circuit board which holds SDRAM, DDR SDRAM, DDR2 SDRAM, and DDR3 SDRAM chips. There are 168-pin SDRAM DIMMs, 184-pin DDR DIMMs, and 240-pin DDR2 and DDR3 DIMMs.
RIMMRAMBus Inline Memory Module is a circuit board which holds RDRAM chips. A typical RIMM has a 184-pin configuration.
SODIMMSmall Outline DIMM has a 72-pin and 100-pin configuration for support of 32-bit transfers or 144-pin, 200-pin, and 204-pin configurations for support of 64-bit transfers. This smaller more condensed version of DIMM provides random access data storage which is ideal for use in laptops, printers, and other devices where conserving space is desirable.

Figure 2 on this page is a table displaying the following common memory types and characteristics.

Memory TypeIndustry NamePeak Transfer RateFront Side Bus
PC100 SDRAMPC-100800 MB/s100 MHZ
PC-133 SDRAMPC-1331060 MB/s133 MHZ
DDR-333PC-27002700 MB/s166 MHZ
DDR-400PC-32003200 MB/s200 MHZ
DDR2-667PC2-53005333 MB/s667 MHZ
DDR3-1600PC3-1280012800 MB/s1600 MHZ
DDR2-800PC2-64006400 MB/s400 MHZ
DRR3-1333PC3-1060010667 MB/s1333 MHZ
DRR3-1866PC3-1490014933 MB/s1867 MHZ
DRR3-2133PC3-170017066 MB/s2133 MHZ

Figure 3 on this page is an interactive activity that allows the learner to understand the difference between the following common types of cache memory.

NameDescription
L1L1 cache is internal cache and is integrated into the CPU.
L2L2 cache is external cache and was originally mounted on the motherboard near the CPU. L2 cache is now integrated into the CPU.
L3L3 cache is used on some high-end workstations and server CPUs.

Figure 4 on this page is an interactive activity that allows the learner to understand the difference between the following types of error checking.

Memory ErrorDescription
NonparityNonparity memory does not check for errors in memory.
ParityParity memory contains eight bits for data and one bit for error checking. The error-checking bit is called a parity bit.
ECCError Correction Code memory can detect multiple bit errors in memory and correct single bit errors in memory.

1.1.2 Internal PC Components >1.1.2.7 Adapter Cards and Expansion Slots

Figure 1 on this page shows the following four adapters cards:

  • Sound Adapter
  • Network Interface Card (NIC)
  • Redundant Array of Independent Disks adapter (RAID)
  • Video Adapter.

Figure 2 on this page is an interactive activity that allows the learner to understand the difference between the following types of expansion slots.

Slot TypeDescription
PCIPeripheral Component Interconnect is a 32-bit or 64-bit expansion slot. PCI is the standard slot currently used in most computers.
AGPAGP is designed to be used by video adapters. Advancements in the specification for AGP allow for bandwidth increases. The bandwidth of the port can be multiplied 2x, 4x, or 8x.
PCIePCI Express is a serial bus expansion slot. PCIe has x1, x4, x8 and x16 slots. PCIe is replacing AGP as an expansion slot for video adapters and can be used for other types of adapters.
ISAIndustry Standard Architecture is an 8-bit or 16-bit expansion slot. This is older technology and is seldom used.
EISAExtended Industry Standard Architecture is a 32-bit expansion slot. This is older technology and is seldom used.
MCAMicrochannel Architecture is an IBM-propriety 32-bit expansion slot. This is older technology is seldom used.
PCI-XPCI-Extended is a 32-bit bus with higher bandwidth than the PCI bus. PCI-X can run up to four times faster than PCI.
Mini PCIMini PCI is a 32-bit bus used by laptops. Mini PCI has three different form factors, Type 1, Type 2 and Type 3.

1.1.2 Internal PC Components >1.1.2.8 Storage Devices and RAID

Figure 1 on this page shows the following types of storage devices:

  • Floppy Drive
  • Hard Drive
  • Optical Drive
  • External Flash Drive.

Figure 2 on this page is a table displaying a comparison of the following different RAID levels.

RAID LevelMin # of DrivesDescriptionAdvantagesDisadvantages
02Data striping without redundancyHighest PerformanceNo Data protection, failure of one drive results in all loss of all data
12Disk mirroringHigh performance, high data protection because all data is duplicatedHigh cost of implementation because additional drive of equal or larger capacity is required
22Error-Correcting CodingThis is no longer usedSame performance can be achieved at a lower cost using RAID 3
33Byte-Level data striping with dedicated parityFor large, sequential data requests.Does not support multiple, simultaneous read and write requests
43Block-level data striping with dedicated paritySupports multiple read requests, if a disk fails the dedicated parity disk is used to create a replacement diskWrite requests are bottlenecked due to the dedicated parity drive
53Combination of data striping and mirroring* Supports multiple simultaneous read and writes
* Data is written across all drives with parity
Data can be rebuilt from information found on the other drives
Write performance is slower than RAID 0 and 1
64Independent Data Disks with Double parityBlock-level striping with parity data distributed across all disks, can handle two simultaneous drive failures.Lower performance than RAID 5, not supported on all disk controllers
RAID 0+14Combination of data striping and mirroringHigh performance, highest data protectionHigh cost overhead because duplication of data requires twice the storage capacity
104(must be even number)Mirrored set in a striped setProvides fault tolerance and improved performanceHigh cost overhead because duplication of data requires twice the storage capacity

1.1.2 Internal PC Components >1.1.2.9 Internal Cables

The image on this page shows the following data cables:

  • SATA data cable
  • PATA 80-conductor data cable
  • FDD (floppy disk drive) data cable

1.1.3 External Ports and Cables >1.1.3.1 Video Ports and Cables

Figure 1 on this page shows both ends of a digital video interface cable (DVI).

Figure 2 on this page shows both ends of a Display port cable.

Figure 3 on this page shows a three-connector RCA cable consisting of a yellow connector for video and a pair of red and white connectors for left and right channel audio. The image also shows the corresponding sockets for the cable.

Figure 4 on this page shows a DB-15 analog video cable and port.

Figure 5 on this page shows a BNC cable end the corresponding socket.

Figure 6 on this page shows an RJ-45 network cable and the corresponding port.

Figure 7 on this page shows the end of a mini HDMI cable and the corresponding port.

Figure 8 on this page shows the following four common types of video cable:

  • HDMI
  • DVI
  • VGA (also known as an analog video cable)
  • Component RGB (Red, Green and Blue)

Figure 9 on this page shows the following other common cables:

  • Composite (yellow, red and white)
  • S-Video
  • Coaxial
  • Ethernet

1.1.3 External Ports and Cables >1.1.3.2 Other Ports and Cables

Figure 1 on this page shows a 9 pin female serial cable and the male connector on a computer.

Figure 2 on this page shows a 4-wire RJ-11 telephone and modem cable and connector.

Figure 3 on this page shows an external dial-up modem connected to computer .

Figure 4 on this page shows a USB cable and the corresponding port.

Figure 5 on this page shows a FireWire cable and an expansion FireWire card with two ports.

Figure 6 on this page shows a 25-pin male parallel cable and the corresponding female port on a computer.

Figure 7 on this page shows a 50-pin SCSI cable and the following SCSI ports:

  • 25-pin SCSI Connector
  • 50-pin SCSI Connector
  • 80-pin SCSI Connector

Figure 8 on this page shows an Ethernet cable and the Ethernet port on a computer.

Figure 9 on this page shows a purple PS2 cable (keyboard) and a green PS2 cable (mouse) and a computer with the corresponding ports.

Figure 10 on this page shows an expansion audio card with the following ports:

  • Line In (blue)
  • Microphone (red)
  • Line Out (green)
  • Auxillary In (black)
  • Gamesport/MIDI

1.1.4 Input and Output Devices >1.1.4.1 Input Devices

Figure 1 shows a 4-port KVM switch (keyboard, video, mouse).

Figure 2 shows a joystick and a gamepad that can be used to run simulations or play games on a computer.

Figure 3 shows an SLR camera digital video camera connected to a desktop computer.

Figure 4 shows a laptop computer and is highlighting the fingerprint scanner that can be configured to control access to a computer.

Figure 5 shows a digitizer which is very similar to a stylus pen.

1.1.4 Input and Output Devices >1.1.4.2 Output Devices

Image 1 on this page shows the following types of monitors:

  • LCD/LED/OLED
  • CRT
  • digital projector

Image 2 on this page shows an all-in-one device that can be used for printing, scanning, faxing, and copying.

Image 3 on this page shows a set of computer speakers and a set of headphones that has a built-in microphone.

1.1.4 Input and Output Devices >1.1.4.3 Monitor Characteristics

Figure 1 on this page is a table listing common monitor resolutions:

Display Resolution
Display StandardLinear Pixels (HXV)Aspect Ratio
CGA320x20016:10
EGA640x35011:6
VGA640x4804:3
WVGA854x48016:9
SVGA800x6004:3
XGA1024x7684:3
WXGA1280x80016:10
SXGA1280x10245:4
SXGA+1400x10504:3
WSXGA1600x102425:16
UXGA1600x12004:3
HDTV1920x108016:9
WUXGA1920x120016:10
QXGA2048x15364:3
QSXGA2560x20485:4
WQUXGA3840x240016:10
HXGA4096x30724:3
WHXGA5120x32008:5
HSXGA5120x40965:4
WHSXGA6400x409625:16
HUXGA6400x48004:3
WHUXGA7680x48008:5

Figure 2 on this page is an interactive activity listing the following requirements for connecting multiple monitors to a single computer:

Hardware Needed:

  • Two or more video ports
  • Additional monitors

Software Configuration:

  1. Click Start > Control Panel > Display.
  2. Click Change display settings. (The Screen Resolution window should show two monitor icons. If multiple monitors are not displayed on the screen, the monitor may not be supported.).
  3. Click the monitor icon that represents your main display. If the monitor is not already the main display, check the box next to Make this my main display.
  4. Choose Extend these displays from the Multiple displays drop-down box.
  5. Click Identify. Windows 7 will display large numbers to identify the two monitors. Drag and drop the monitor icons to match the physical arrangement of the monitors.
  6. Choose the desired Resolution and Orientation from the drop-down boxes.
  7. Click OK.
 Advantages:
  • Extending the Windows desktop across two monitors is an inexpensive way to enhance a computer.
  • Dualview can also be used to add a second monitor to laptops.
  • Using multiple monitors increases productivity. For example, a user can use one screen to video conference while taking notes in an application displayed on the other monitor.

1.2 Selecting Replacement Computer Parts

1.2.1 Selecting PC Components>1.2.1.1 Case and Power Supply

The image on this page shows a computer case shell and a power supply. Nothing else is in the case shell.

1.2.1 Selecting PC Components>1.2.1.2 Selecting Motherboards

The image on this page shows a modern computer motherboard.

1.2.1 Selecting PC Components>1.2.1.3 Selecting the CPU and Heat Sink and Fan Assembly

The figure on this page is a table listing the following common CPU socket types and characteristics.

Common CPU Socket Types and Characteristics
SocketArchitectureExamples of Supported ProcessorsManufacture
775LGAPentium 4, Celeron D, Pentium D, Pentium Dual core, core 2 duo, Core 2 Quad, Xeon, CeleronIntel
1155LGACeleron, Core i3, Core i5, core i7, Pentium, XeonIntel
1156LGACeleron, Core i3, Core i5, core i7, Pentium, XeonIntel
1366LGACore i7 (9xx series), Xeon (35xx ,36xx ,55xx ,56xx series), Celeron P1053Intel
940PGAAthlon 64FX, OpteronAMD
AM2PGAAthlon 64, Athlon 64 X2, Athlon 64 FX, Opteron, Sempron, PhenomAMD
AM2+PGAAthlon 64, Athlon 64 X2, Athlon II, Opteron, Phenom, Phenom IIAMD
AM3PGAPhenom II (Excluding 940 and 920), Athlon II, Sempron, Opteron 138xAMD
AM3+PGAPhenom II (Excluding 940 and 920), Athlon II, Sempron, Opteron 138x, FX SeriesAMD
FM1PGAA series (Llano) processorsAMD
FLGAOpteron 2xxx, 8xxx series, Athlon 64 FX FX-7x seriesAMD

1.2.1 Selecting PC Components>1.2.1.4 Selecting Ram

The figure on this page shows two images. The top image shows the side view of four empty RAM slots on a motherboard. The bottom image shows a memory module inserted into one of the memory slots.

1.2.1 Selecting PC Components>1.2.1.5 Selecting Adapter Cards

The 4 images on this page show the following types of adapter cards:

  • Sound Adapter
  • NIC
  • RAID Adapter
  • Video Adapter

1.2.1 Selecting PC Components>1.2.1.6 Selecting Hard Drives and Floppy Drives

Figure 1 on this page shows images of the following types of hard drive connectors:

  • SATA
  • PATA
  • SCSI
  • eSATA

Figure 2 on this page shows the following two diagrams of SCSI device daisy chains:

Internal Daisy Chain:

  1. SCSI cable terminates at SCSI card and connects to Hard Drive1 without terminating
  2. Hard Drive1 connects to Hard Drive2 without terminating
  3. Hard Drive2 connects to Floppy Drive and terminates

External Daisy Chain:

  1. SCSI cable terminates at SCSI card and connects to External Drive1 without terminating
  2. External Drive1 connects to External Drive2 without terminating
  3. External Drive2 connects to External Floppy Drive without terminating
  4. External Floppy Drive connects to Flat Bed Scanner and terminates

Figure 3 on this page is a table listing the following SCSI types:

SCSI typeAlso CalledConnectorMaximum Output
SCSI-1 50-pin
Centronics 50-pin
5 MB/s
Fast SCSIPlain SCSI50-pin
Centronics 50-pin
10 MB/s
Fast Wide SCSI 50-pin
68-pin
20 MB/s
Ultra SCSIFast-2050-pin20 MB/s
UIltra Wide SCSI 68-pin40 MB/s
Ultra2 SCSIFast-4050-pin40 MB/s
Ultra2 Wide SCSI 68-pin
80-pin
160 MB/s
Ultra3 SCSIUltra-16068-pin
80-pin
160 MB/s
Ultra320 SCSI 68-pin
80-pin
320 MB/s

1.2.1 Selecting PC Components>1.2.1.7 Selecting Solid State Drives and Media Readers

Figure 1 on this page shows an exploded diagram of a solid state drive consisting of the following components:

  • Top Cover
  • Interface Connector
  • Cache Chip
  • Controller Chip
  • NAND Memory Chips on both sides of Logic Board
  • Logic Board
  • Bottom Cover

Figure 2 on this page shows images of the following common media cards:

  • SD
  • microSD
  • CompactFlash
  • Memory Stick

1.2.1 Selecting PC Components>1.2.1.8 Selecting Optical Drives

The image on this page shows an optical CD drive.

1.2.1 Selecting PC Components>1.2.1.9 Selecting External Storage

The image on this page shows an external hard drive connected to a laptop computer with a USB cable

1.2.1 Selecting PC Components>1.2.1.10 Selecting Input and Output Devices

Image 1 on this page shows a profile of a motherboard that has the following common input and output ports integrated into it:

  • 1 PS2 port
  • 2 USB ports
  • 1 Digital Audio port
  • 1 x HDMI port
  • 1 VGA port
  • 1 DVI port
  • 2 USB 3.0 ports
  • 1 Ethernet port
  • 2 USB ports
  • 6 3.5 mm Audio ports

Figure 2 on this page shows the following USB plugs and connectors for both USB version 1.1 and version 2.0:

Plugs:

  • Type A
  • Type B
  • Mini-B
  • Micro-A
  • Micro-B

Connectors:

  • Type A
  • Type B
  • Mini-B
  • Micro-AB
  • Micro-B

Figure 3 on this page shows the following images:

  • USB 3.0 A plug
  • USB 3.0 B plug
  • USB 3.0 Micro plug and connector

Figure 4 on this page shows a table listing PATA and SATA data transfer speeds.

PATA and SATA Speeds
InterfaceSpeed
ATA-1 (IDE)8.3 MB/s
ATA-2 (EIDE)16.6 MB/s
ATA-3 (EIDE) (Minor Revision)16.6 MB/s
ATA-4 (Ultra-ATA/33)33.3 MB/s
ATA-5 (Ultra-ATA/66)66.7 MB/s
ATA-6 (Ultra-ATA/100)100 MB/s
ATA-7 (Ultra-ATA/133)133 MB/s
SATA-1.01.5 Gb/s
SATA-2.03 Gb/s
SATA-3.06 Gb/s

1.2.1 Selecting PC Components>1.2.1.11 Worksheet - Research Computer Components

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

1.3 Configurations for Specialised Computers

1.3.1 Specialised Computer Systems >1.3.1.1 CAx Workstations

The image on this page shows a man working at a computer workstation that has two monitors and he is also working with a tablet computer. This is used to show a high performance workstation for a specific system such as a computer aided drafting station.

1.3.1 Specialised Computer Systems >1.3.1.2 Audio and Video Editing Workstations

The image on this page shows a computer work station that has two monitors next to a large audio mixing sound board. This is used to show a dedicated audio editing workstation.

1.3.1 Specialised Computer Systems >1.3.1.3 Virtualisation Workstations

The image on this page shows four monitors connected to one computer. This is used to show a high performance virtualisation workstation.

1.3.1 Specialised Computer Systems >1.3.1.4 Gaming PCs

The image on this page shows a man sitting at a gaming PC participating in a computer gaming competition. This is used to show a high performance gaming workstation.

1.3.1 Specialised Computer Systems >1.3.1.5 Home Theatre PCs

The image on this page shows a large computer monitor sitting on top of a home entertainment system. This is used to show a dedicated home theatre computer system.

1.3.1 Specialised Computer Systems >1.3.1.6 Worksheet - Build a Specialized Computer System

See IT Essentials 5.0 Labs and Worksheets Accessible Files.

1.4 Summary

1.4.1 Summary >1.4.1.1 Summary

The image on this page shows a computer system consisting of a tower PC, keyboard, mouse and a flat panel monitor.

End of Chapter 1: Introduction to the Personal Computer.

Next - Chapter 2: Lab Procedures and Tool Use.

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Page last modified on March 26, 2015, at 01:43 AM